True North Veterinary Diagnostics Inc

320-6325 204 Street
Langley, BC V2Y3B3

(604)539-5550

www.tnvd.ca

LABORATORY TEST DIRECTORY

A

2 M ANTIBODY TEST-REFER TO MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS

 

ACTH PLASMA (ENDOGENOUS ACTH)

501

Specimen required: 1 ml of plasma. Collect blood in EDTA (LT tube), spin and harvest plasma. Place plasma in a plastic tube, freeze and or submit on ice.

Indication: In combination with serum insulin and glucose, this is the preferred screening test for Cushing’s disease in horses. In dogs and cats plasma ACTH will be high with pituitary dependant Cushing’s disease and low or undetectable in patients with functional adrenocortical tumors. Therefore, plasma ACTH may be helpful in differentiating pituitary dependant Cushing’s disease and adrenocortical tumor and is likely the preferred means of doing so in cats. If “atypical” Addisons has been confirmed an endogenous ACTH can be used to distinguish between primary and secondary hypoadrenocorticism. Secondary hypoadrenocorticism is due to pituitary disease and therefore electrolyte disturbances would not be expected to develop. This should be collected prior to steroid administration.

Comments: Dogs suffering from severe and or chronic stress may have elevated ACTH levels that overlap with dogs with Cushing’s disease. Immunosuppressive doses of steroids should be withheld a minimum of 3-4 weeks prior to testing. ACTH level will decrease significantly with improper sample handling.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Saturday.

ACTH RESPONSE TEST (ACTH STIMULATION TEST)

502-1 (SINGLE CORTISOL SAMPLE)

502 (2 SAMPLES-ZERO HOUR AND ONE POST STIMULATORY SAMPLE) 

503 (3 SAMPLES-ZERO HOUR AND TWO POST STIMULATORY SAMPLES) 

 

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum or heparinized plasma per sample.

Indication: In addition to diagnosis of naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease), this is the only diagnostic test for hypoadrenalism (Addison’s disease), iatrogenic Cushing’s disease and monitoring response to medical therapy for Cushing’s disease. A LDDST cannot be used to monitor Trilostane.

Note: Sedation of the animal can be done but is not recommended as it can interfere with the outcome of the test.

CANINE: Collect a baseline sample in a green or red top or SST tube and separate the serum or plasma as soon as possible.

1. Inject Cortrosyn at .25mg/dog or 5 ug/kg IV or IM. IV is advised if patient is dehydrated.  Cortrosyn is reconstituted with 1 ml of sterile saline.

2. If using Synacthen Depot 1mg/ml - Inject Intramuscularly 0.5 mg or 1/2 vial for dogs under 10-15 kg and 1mg or a full vial for dogs weighing more  than 10-15 kg.  Note in normal dogs (weighing 13.5 to 33 kg) Synacthen Depot administered at a dose of .25mg (or 250 ug) IM resulted in an equivalent  adrenal cortical stimulation (AJVR 2012). A specific protocol has not been researched in clinically Cushingoid patients. Previous  internal data at CVL noted a 90 minute post is appropriate for Synacthen Depot while a two hour post is often sited in other sources. Gel products  are generally dosed at 2.2 IU/kg. For e.g. Bexco ACTH gel (40U/ml). Compounded gel products are generally not advised.

 3. Collect a post sample at 1 hour with the Cortrosyn, 90 minutes or up to two hours with Synacthen Depot and at 1 and 2 hours with a gel product.

4. Separate the sample as soon as possible.Submit the original tubes and the spun off serum/plasma (0.5 ml) to the lab. Make sure the tubes are labeled correctly as pre or post.

COMBINED BILE ACIDS/ACTH STIMULATION TEST: ACTH and bile acids panels can be run simultaneously however varying protocols apply. There is also the rare report of food-dependent Cushings to consider. If combining a bile acids tests with Cortrosyn, take the pre-sample, administer Cortrosyn according to previously mentioned protocol. Feed the dog appropriately (higher fat meal if not contraindicated), wait one hour then collect the post ACTH sample and then wait another hour to collect the post bile acids sample. If using ACTH gel products ideally a one hour and a two hour post should be collected along with the two hour post prandial bile acids. If using Synacthen Depot a two hour post cortisol along with the post-prandial bile acids can be collected. Alternatively a 90 minute post ACTH and an additional 2 hr post prandial bile acids can be collected. 

MONITORING RESPONSE TO TRILOSTANE THERAPY:

  1. Only an ACTH stimulation can be used to monitor a response to Trilostane. A LDDST cannot be used for monitoring response to Trilostane.
  2. Note the drug can have additive effects and maximal effect may take up to 30 days.
  3. Trilostane should be given with food. Trilostane can be given with food at home and the ACTH stimulation test started 2-4 hours afterwards in the clinic. (Griebsch JVIM 2014)
  4. Importantly the ACTH stimulation test should be initiated at the same time every time when monitoring/comparing ACTH stimulation tests. 
  5. If short duration of action is suspected one can consider checking a 24 hour post Trilostane ACTH stimulation. Short duration of action is a consideration when the ACTH stimulation appears to be within an optimal range but clinical signs persist.  A 24 hour post Trilostane UCCR collected at home may be helpful in determining short duration of action. 
  6. If a dose adjustment is indicated a 10-20% change up to a maximum increase of 25% is advised.  If moving from once a day to BID dosing - the original once a day dose should be split as a starting point. 

 

FELINE: Procedure is the same as for dogs however IV is the preferred method for administration of Cortrosyn. The dose is .125 mg or 125 ug/cat IV. Post samples should be collected a 30 and 60 minutes. 

Synacthen Depot has not been well evaluated in cats. An ACTH stimulation is less sensitive than a LDDST for the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in the cat. A UCCR is also a good screening test in cats for Cushing’s. Note Urine for a UCCR should be collected at home and it should be 48-72 hours since the last veterinary visit. 

 

FERRETS: Procedure is the same as for cats; samples should be collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. Please note: It may be helpful in both ferrets and cats to measure pre and post progesterone as well as cortisol.

PLEASE NOTE: The diagnosis of adrenal tumors in ferrets is difficult and recent information suggests that measurement of adrenal metabolites may be the best way to determine adrenal neoplasia. Concentrations of androstenedione, estradiol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone are elevated.

Comments: Protocols for performing the test differ between species and within a species. Refer to the protocol section of the manual. Corticosteroids will interfere with this test and should be withheld a minimum of 6-8 weeks prior to testing. This may not be the best or first choice for diagnosis of adrenal tumor(s) in ferrets. See discussion of adrenal imbalance and adrenal metabolite panel with regards to non Cushing’s adrenocortical disease.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ACTIVATED CLOTTING TIME (ACT)

Indications: ACT is a screening test for abnormalities of coagulation. Patient side test. Tubes contain diatomaceous earth and can be ordered from the lab

Protocol:

  1. A tube containing diatomaceous earth is filled with 2 ml of blood
  2. The tube is inverted 5 times
  3. Keep tube at body temperature (e.g. under arm) checking every thirty seconds for complete clot formation

 

 

ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME (APTT)

801  

 

ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME/PROTHROMBIN TIME

841  

Specimen required: Citrated plasma from blue top tube (approximately 1.5 ml). If submitting a coagulation profile please include EDTA whole blood (LT).

Indication: The APTT is increased with one or more factor deficiencies in the intrinsic or common pathways of the coagulation cascade, factors VIII,IX,XI,XII,X and V.

Normal test result: Reference interval (seconds): feline 15-25, canine 14-20, equine 34-68, bovine 40-68, ovine 28-55.

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. The RT tubes currently supplied by the lab are siliconized but please verify this before using the tube for transport of citrate plasma. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection.

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm This test can be ordered in conjunction with a prothrombin time.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

ADRENAL METABOLITE PANEL (CANINE WITH ACTH RESPONSE TEST)

S505  

Specimen required: Minimum of 1 ml of serum for each pre and post sample. Do not send lipemic or hemolyzed samples.

Indication: This panel can be considered in cases of occult hyperadrenocorticism. (See open access article, JVIM 2012. Diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism consensus statement). There are a number of hormone-induced alopecic syndromes in dogs that are caused by abnormal pathways of hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex although the exact pathogenesis is poorly understood. Pomeranians and Chows are breeds recognized as being predisposed, but the syndrome occurs in other breeds albeit less frequently. At one time alopecia in these breeds was thought to be due to a deficiency of growth hormone but it is now recognized that the problem exists at the level of the adrenal cortex. An ACTH response test is performed and the metabolites of the steroid pathway are measured as well as the end hormone, cortisol. Included hormones are Cortisol, Estradiol, Androstenedione, 17-hydroxy progesterone, Progesterone and Testosterone. This is one of ten inclusion criteria to consider when considering Alopecia X.

Comments: ACTH response test protocol:

Collect a baseline sample (2.0 ml) in a green or red top or SST tube and separate the serum or plasma as soon as possible.

  1. Inject Cortrosyn at .25mg/dog or 5 ug/kg IV or IM. IV is advised if patient is dehydrated.  Cortrosyn is reconstituted with 1 ml of sterile saline.

 2. If using Synacthen Depot 1mg/ml - Inject Intramuscularly 0.5 mg or 1/2 vial for dogs under 10-15 kg and 1mg or a full vial for dogs weighing more  than 10-15 kg.  Note in normal dogs (weighing 13.5 to 33 kg) Synacthen Depot administered at a dose of .25mg (or 250 ug) IM resulted in an equivalent  adrenal cortical stimulation (AJVR 2012). A specific protocol has not been researched in clinically Cushingoid patients. Previous  internal data at CVL noted a 90 minute post is appropriate for Synacthen Depot while a two hour post is often sited in other sources. Gel products  are generally dosed at 2.2 IU/kg. For e.g. Bexco ACTH gel (40U/ml). Compounded gel products are generally not advised.

 3. Collect a post sample at 1 hour with the Cortrosyn, 90 minutes or up to two hours with Synacthen Depot and at 1 and 2 hours with a gel product.

4. Separate the sample as soon as possible.

5. Submit the original tubes and the spun off serum/plasma (2.0 ml) to the lab. Make sure the tubes are labeled correctly as pre or post.

6. Freeze serum and submit samples on ice.

 

Reporting time: Send out-Clinical Endocrinology Lab-Knoxville, Tennessee; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

Special comments: Abbreviated protocol, measuring of cortisol and progesterone only. Refer to protocol section of the manual.

 

ADRENAL METABOLITE PANEL (FERRETS)

S518

Specimen required: Single sample, patient must be fasted, minimum of 0.5 ml of serum, freeze and submit on ice.

Indication: Measurement of adrenal metabolites may also be used to identify adrenal tumors in ferrets.

Comments: Estradiol, androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone are measured.

Reporting time: Send out- Clinical Endocrinology Lab-Knoxville, Tennessee; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

AFLATOXIN

S408    

Specimen required: Sample of bird feed-250 grams minimum required.

Indication: To detect specific aflatoxin in bird feed, especially with nuts.

Reporting time: Send out- Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

A:G RATIO

393

Comment: This is a calculation derived from measurement of albumin and total protein in serum. Globulins are calculated as the difference between total protein and albumin (TP-albumin=globulins). The A:G ratio is calculated as a simple ratio of albumin to globulins. A declining ratio is indicative of increasing globulins, loss or failure of production of albumin, or a combination of both. The ratio is included at no charge in all profiles containing a total protein and albumin measurement. PLEASE NOTE: A charge will be incurred if the total protein and albumin need to be run ie. no panel.

 

ALBUMIN (SERUM)

392    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum. Can be run on heparinized or sodium fluoride plasma.

Indication: Measures the primary protein species of serum.

Comments: Albumin is produced by the liver. Albumin has a half life that varies between species, anywhere from 9-21 days. Loss of albumin can occur through the kidneys or intestine, or through exudation associated with severe widespread burns or into the third space associated with exudative processes. Elevated levels usually reflect dehydration or interference from sample hemolysis. Decreased albumin can result from decreased production by the liver in advanced liver disease. Biochemical measurement of albumin is inaccurate in some species of birds and in lemurs.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

ALBUMIN, URINE (URINE PROTEIN, MICROPROTEIN)

317

Specimen required: 1-2 ml of urine.

Indication: Quantitative measure of albumin in urine. The urine dipstick gives a qualitative measure of urine protein and increased protein as detected by this method should be verified by quantitative measurements of protein. Urine albumin is combined with urine creatinine to calculate a ratio.

Comments: An increased ratio is consistent with increased renal (glomerular) loss of protein assuming inactive urine sediment (lack of significant hemorrhage, real or iatrogenic, and urogenital tract inflammation). Mildly increased ratios can be associated with extrarenal factors such as systemic hypertension and Cushing’s disease. (See the open access article consensus recommendations for the Diagnostic Investigation of Dogs with Suspected Glomerular Disease. JVIM vol 27 2013).

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ALDOSTERONE

S506    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum or EDTA plasma (preferred). Submit sample on ice.

Indication: Measure blood aldosterone level. Over-production of aldosterone (Conn’s disease) results in hypokalemia and hypertension in cats. Note that aldosterone is not affected by steroids.

Comments: Reference intervals are not available for all species.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ALEUTIAN DISEASE TITER

S601    

Specimen required: 100 ul minimum of serum.

Indication: To measure antibody to the parvovirus responsible for Aleutian disease of mink and ferrets.

Comments: In the acute stages of the disease antibody levels may be low or undetectable. Paired serum titers separated by 2-3 weeks are recommended. Requisition form-request under other, under virology.

Reporting time: Send out-Abbotsford Animal Health Center; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP)

318    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or heparinized plasma.

Indication: This enzyme is produced primarily by bile duct epithelial and canalicular cells of the liver. In dogs the enzyme is induced by corticosteroids, NSAIDS, antiepileptic medications and can also be elevated by increased hydrostatic pressure of the biliary duct system (cholestasis). Non specific increases may also occur with neoplasia. ALP is produced by bone cells and blood ALP can be 3x normal adult levels in young animals before growth plate closure (during active bone growth). It is rare for bone lesions to cause a significantly increased blood ALP. The half-life of ALP is variable, but thought to be 1-5 days in most species.

Comment: Severe lipemia may cause false elevation and severe hemolysis may cause false decreases. Included in most profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ALPHA-1 PROTEASE INHIBITOR

S375

Specimen required: Samples must be provided in specific tubes (please order from our supply department). 1 g of fecal material collected from 3 different fecal samples. Freeze each sample immediately after placing it in the tube. Samples must be submitted to the lab in a frozen state and on ice.

Indication: To evaluate for intestinal malabsorption and protein loss. This test is only run on cats (1 year and older) and dogs.

Reporting time: Send out- Texas GI Lab; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ALT (SGPT)

319    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or heparinized plasma.

Indication: This enzyme is present in the cytosol of cells and is in highest concentration in the liver (hepatocytes) of small animals. It is a leakage enzyme and indicates hepatocellular injury when blood level rises. This is not the enzyme of choice for detecting hepatocellular injury in large animals (see AST).

Comment: ALT is a component of most small animal chemistry profiles and is a component of Avian/Reptile Profile 2.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

AMMONIA LEVELS

The laboratory does not perform blood ammonia levels. Bile acids are a suitable and equally accurate substitute for measurement of hepatic function and of enterohepatic circulation.

 

AMYLASE

320  

AMYLASE/LIPASE

315  

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or heparinized plasma.

Indication: Blood levels of this enzyme are derived from pancreas and intestinal epithelium in small animals. Elevated amylase can be associated with pancreatic disease characterized by injury such as inflammation or neoplasia and renal insufficiency in dogs. In cats, elevated amylase is more typically associated with intestinal disease and renal insufficiency.

Comment: Amylase is best paired with lipase.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ANA (ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODY TEST)

901

S999 (Feline and Equine)

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum for canines, 1 ml of serum for feline or equine.

Indication: This is the test of choice for systemic lupus erythematosus in dogs, cats and horses.

Comment: Prior use of corticosteroids may result in a false negative result. Steroids should be discontinued for 4-6 weeks before testing.

Reporting time: Canine: Alternate days, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Equine and Feline: Send out: Feline-Phoenix Lab at, results generally available within 3-10 business days.

 

ANAPLASMA MARGINALE TITER (ANAPLASMOSIS TITER)

S602    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: This is a Compliment fixation test to detect antibody to Anaplasma spp. The result is expressed as a titer. This agent causes infection in elk, llamas and domestic ruminants.

Comment: Paired serum samples taken 2-3 weeks apart are recommended.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM IFA (FORMERLY EHRLICHIA EQUI) (ALSO SEE BLOOD PARASITE PANEL)

603    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: This is an IFA test to detect antibody (titer) to the infectious agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Rare cases in horses on Vancouver Island have been detected. The organism is tick transmitted and can cause illness in horses, dogs and cats. During the acute phase, morulae may be detected in polymorphonuclear white cells, the basis for the original name of “granulocytic ehrlichiosis”.

The original name for this organism was Ehrlichia equi. The titers are specific for this organism and Anaplasma platys and there is no consistent cross reactivity to Ehrlichia canis.

Comment: During the acute phase of the disease there may be negligible antibody and paired serum samples 2-3 weeks apart are recommended. Can also be run as part of the blood parasite panel. Consider concurrent PCR testing if recent infection.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM (PCR)

S675  

Specimen required: 2 ml of EDTA blood.

Indication: To detect antigen early (acute phase of infection) in the course of disease.

Comment: A false negative may occur if the patient has received antibiotics (Tetracycline) and becomes negative after the acute phase has passed.

Reporting time: Send out- Cornell University; please allow one month for results.

 

ANAPLASMA PLATYS IFA (FORMERLY EHRLICHIA PLATYS)

S676  

Specimen required: 2 ml of whole blood in EDTA.

Indication: This is a PCR test for organism DNA and is capable of detecting current infection. All animal species can be tested. Common clinical signs include fever, thrombocytopenia, regenerative anemia, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy.

Comment: Antibiotic treatment can cause a false negative result.

Reporting time: Send out-North Carolina State University; normal reporting time is 5-7 days-may take up to 3 weeks in some cases.

  

ANION GAP

321    

This is a calculated parameter: AG=(Na+K)-(Cl+TCO2). The anion gap is a normal component of most chemistry profiles. There is no charge for this test when run as part of a panel.

Comment: The anion gap is increased in acid-base disturbances in conjunction with acidosis and decrease of TCO2. Conditions in which a high anion gap acidosis occurs include lactic acidosis (dehydration, renal disease), ethylene glycol toxicity and diabetes ketoacidosis.

 

ANTI-ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE RECEPTOR ANTIBODY

S900  

Specimen required: 1-2 ml of serum. Sample should be kept cold.

Indication: Demonstrating antibody to the acetylcholinesterase receptor is consistent with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.

Comments: Low doses of steroids or anti-inflammatory drugs should not interfere. Immunosuppressive doses of steroids should be withheld a minimum of 3-4 weeks prior to testing. Note repeat testing in 2-3 months is advised if focal disease is a concern and initial testing is negative.

Reporting time: Send out-University of California-San Diego; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ANTIFREEZE (FOOD OR SERUM)-REFER TO ETHYLENE GLYCOL

 

ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE (AMH)

SAMHS (CANINE AND FELINE)

SAMHE (EQUINE)

Specimen required: Canine/Feline-1.5 ml serum (no SST)-send on ice. Equine-1.5 ml serum (no SST)-send on ice.

Indication: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), looks for the presence or absence of AMH in a small serum sample. The ovaries are the sole source of AMH, and a negative result indicates that the ovaries have been removed. A positive result indicates that the animal is intact, or possibly that an ovarian remnant remains in an animal that was previously spayed. An AMH test can help determine if surgical exploration is warranted. Anti-Mullerian hormone replaces the discontinued estrogen test.

Reporting time: Send out-Canine/Feline-Cornell University; testing is batched and usually reported out in 7-10 business days. Equine-UC Davis; testing is performed on Mondays. Results reported in 7-10 business days.

  

ANTITHROMBIN III

S111    

Specimen required: 1 ml of plasma required. Collect blood in a blue top tube (sodium citrate).

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. The RT tubes currently supplied by the lab are siliconized but please verify this before using the tube for transport of citrate plasma. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection.

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm

Indication: Antithrombin III is a natural anticoagulant produced by the body. Patients with decreased antithrombin III are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Antithrombin III can be decreased in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ARSENIC

S411    

Specimen required: 1 ml EDTA or heparinized whole blood, or 1 g of liver, kidney, stomach contents or feed. Submit the tissue and food samples in a sterile container. Do not spin blood samples.

Indication: This is a test for arsenic in blood, tissues, or food.

Comment: On requisition form-request under other, under toxicology.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ASPERGILLUS TITER

S604  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum (a minimum of 0.2 ml from birds).

Indication: This is a test for antibody to Aspergillus spp.

Comment: Positive titer is consistent with exposure and or infection and the titer can be used to monitor therapy. This test can be ordered alone or as part of the systemic fungal panel. Patients with localized disease/infection, ie. nasal Aspergillosis, may have undetectable antibody (negative titer).

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

AST (SGOT)

322    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum.

Indication: This is a leakage enzyme and found primarily in mitochondria. Increased AST in large animals including horses can be associated with active liver disease and muscle injury. In horses mild to modest increases can be seen with IM injections and brisk exercise. AST is a marker for liver injury in some species of birds.

Comment: AST is a component of the chemistry profiles for large animals, avian, reptile, and small mammals.

Reporting time: Same day.

B

BABESIA CANIS TITER IFA (ALSO SEE BLOOD PARASITE PANEL)

605  

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum.

Indication: This test measures antibody to the blood parasite Babesia canis. The parasite is transmitted by the Brown Dog Tick which is widely distributed across the U.S. Parasitemia results in anemia via hemolysis.

Comments: Dogs in the acute phase of the disease may have a negligible antibody titer. A titer to Babesia is consistent with exposure and or active infection. Can be ordered alone or as part of blood parasite panel.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

BABESIA GIBSONI

S606  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum and 2 unstained blood smears collected from the ear vessels.

Indication: This test is a requirement for export to certain countries. Pit Bull terriers are at an increased risk for Babesia gibsoni.

Comment: Please consult the consulate of the country of export or the federal district veterinarian.

Reporting time: Send out-Texas Vet Medical Diagnostic Lab; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

BACTERIOLOGY/CULTURE

General information: Animals should be off all antibiotics for a minimum of 72 hours before testing. Additional sensitivities when requested at the same time as the culture are done at no charge. If requested after the culture has been set there is a reduced fee, see price list.

Sample requirements:

Anaerobic cultures: Special tubes obtained from the lab are required (Port a Cult).

Blood cultures: Isolator tubes can be obtained from lab at a cost of $14.17 per vial.

Campylobacter culture: Collect specimen into Enteric Pathogen Media. Campylobacter is a fastidious and slow growing organism. Place fresh feces in broth as soon as possible after collection. Can also use preputial washings.

Chlamydia culture: Culture for Chlamydia spp. or Chlamydophila felis is no longer offered. ELISA and PCR tests for antigen are recommended. Please consult the laboratory if seeking testing for these organisms.

Fecal culture: Sterile tube/container.

Fluid culture: Fluid specimens for purposes of culture should be submitted in a sterile red top tube or other container. Do not submit fluids in EDTA for culture. EDTA is bacteriostatic and therefore interferes with the ability to grow bacteria.

Fungal culture: Depending on site, can submit swab in transport media, hair, skin scrapings, and tissue. Most specimens for fungal culture can be submitted in a sterile red top tube.

Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma: Special media is required and can be obtained from the lab.

Routine culture: Aspirates, fluids and tissues may be submitted in a sterile plastic tube or RTT. Do not submit in SST. LTT can inhibit bacterial growth and are not recommended for culture submissions.

Urine culture: Sterile plastic tube/container or RTT

Viral culture: Special transport media required for viral isolation. Do not use cotton swabs.

Note: Culturettes with rayon tips are supplied by the lab for routine specimen submissions.

 

ACID FAST SMEAR

200    

Specimen required: Feces, tissue, scraping, bacterial culture swab in transport medium or air dried smear of one of the above.

Indication: Detection of acid fast staining organisms such as Mycobacterium and Cryptosporidium. Rhodococcus and Nocardia are variably acid fast.

Comments: Intermittent fecal shedding may result in false negative result. Overly thick smears are sub-optimal. On the requisition form acid fast stain is listed under bacteriology (Mycobacterium) and parasitology (Cryptosporidium). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex related organisms may not stain.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

ANAEROBIC CULTURE

206    

Specimen required: Sample should be collected in Port A Cult Media Viral. Culturette swab specimens are suboptimal but will be accepted if no other sample can be obtained. Specimens for anaerobic culture should not be refrigerated.

Indication: Anaerobes are often involved in closed wound infections and sepsis of third body space(s) where oxygen is likely to be limited.

Reporting time: 48-72 hours, set up daily.

Comment: Occasionally these organisms may take 5-7 days to grow. Please indicate culture site and species. Antibiotic sensitivities are not performed on anaerobic isolates.

 

BLOOD CULTURE

207    

Specimen required: Using strict aseptic procedure, inoculate the Isolator 1.5 tube with 1.5 ml blood. Do not use less than 0.5 ml of blood. Immediately invert the Isolator tube 4 or 5 times to prevent coagulation and initiate red blood cell lysis. Label the tube appropriately. The tubes can be stored between 2 C-40 C; room temperature (25 C) is recommended. Turbidity within the tube solution is normal. Tubes in use should be at 20-30 C to ensure proper mixing of the blood with the reagents at the time of collection.

Reporting time: A 24 hour preliminary report is provided.

 

CAMPYLOBACTER CULTURE

208  

Specimen required: Fresh feces in special Enteric Pathogen Media. Place fecal material into the broth and ensure cap is tightly secured. Preputial washings or uterine flushes-inoculate 0.25 to 0.50 ml of the fluid into the media. Do not place swabs into the media. Sensitivities are not available for these organisms.

Reporting time: 48-72 hours, set up daily.

 

CHLAMYDIA/CHLAMYDOPHILA CULTURE

Culture for Chlamydia spp. or Chlamydophila felis is no longer offered. ELISA and PCR tests for antigen are recommended. Please consult the laboratory if seeking testing for these organisms.

 

CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN (A AND B)

S204  

Specimen required: Fresh feces in a sterile container, sent on ice.

Indication: An ELISA test for A and B toxins produced by C. difficile.

Reporting time: Send out-Abbotsford Animal Health Monitoring Lab; results generally available within 3-5 business days.

 

CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TOXIN

205  

Specimen required: Use fresh feces. A pea-sized amount of formed feces or 0.5 ml of fluid feces placed in an Eppendorf tube containing special media obtained from lab. Immerse and mix thoroughly, send on ice.

Indication: This test can detect enterotoxin in fecal specimens from patient suspected of having C. Perfringens disease. Please refer to our newsletter at www.tnvd.ca for additional information on enteric pathogens.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

FUNGAL CULTURE

210    

Specimen required: Tissue, hair (including root), nails. Swabs are acceptable for yeast organisms only. Fungal cultures are best performed when scrapings, aspirates, tissues etc. are submitted. Do not use culturettes.

Comment: Always provide a history including travel history and whether the patient is a rescue from a different country and source of the tissue. Fungal media used varies with the type of infection that is suspected, ie. Dermatophytes vs systemic diseases.

Reporting time: Saprophytes often grow rapidly; others including some species of dermatophytes can take up to one month.

 

GRAM STAIN

223    

Specimen required: Any swab, air dried smear, tissue imprint, fecal smear etc.

Indication: To determine the Gram staining characteristics of bacteria present on the slide.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ID ONLY CULTURE

212  

Specimen required: Appropriate bacteriology plate. Only bacteria will be identified and additional charges may apply if there are multiple bacteria growing on the plate.

Comment: Tape sides prior to submission. Do not send old plates as bacteria may be dead.

Reporting time: 24-48 hours.

  

MYCOPLASMA CULTURE (NON HEMOTROPIC)

S215  

Specimen required: Special culture media for Mycoplasma which can be obtained from the lab. Keep refrigerated.

Indication: Culture for Mycoplasma.

Comment: There is lack of general agreement regarding the etiologic role of Mycoplasma in dogs and cats. Diseases that may be associated with Mycoplasma infections in dogs and cats include respiratory tract infections, polyarthritis, meningoencephalitis and skin and soft tissue infections. Mycoplasma cynos will cause lower respiratory disease in the dog. Urogenital disease may be a concern in dogs. Mycoplasma has been associated with conjunctivitis in cats. (Reference-sykes Canine and Feline Infectious Disease). Can be run in combination with Ureaplasma culture, see price list.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; can take up to 6 weeks to verify a negative culture. Also see respiratory panel as Mycoplasma PCR is included in this panel.

 

QUALITY CONTROL (ENVIROMENTAL) CULTURE

230    

Specimen required: Up to 4 swabs can be pooled-all bacteria recovered are identified. No sensitivity tests are done. Swabs can be taken from any environmental surface.

Indication: A means of evaluating microflora within an environment ie. hospital. This test may also be used to evaluate antimicrobial solutions for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth (sample of antimicrobial solution is required).

Comment: The requestor must indicate which swabs can be pooled. For purposes of testing antimicrobial (antiseptic) solutions, please indicate the type of solution being used. This test does not include a gram stain or a sensitivity.

Reporting time: 48-72 hours, set up daily.

 

ROUTINE CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY

216   

Specimen required: Culturette swab with transport media. Aspirates, fluids and tissues may be submitted in a sterile plastic tube or RTT. Do not submit in SST. EDTA can inhibit bacterial growth and are not recommended for culture submissions. Tissue samples should be placed in a sterile container with a small amount of saline to keep the sample moist.

Comment: Please indicate species, site/source and any specific antibiotic sensitivities you wish tested at time of submission. Aerobic culture and sensitivities as determined by disk diffusion are included. Please note that no sensitivity pattern will be run on normal flora or nonpathogenic organisms.

Reporting time: 48-72 hours, set up daily.

 

SALMONELLA CULTURE

217    

Specimen required: A fresh fecal sample/swab transported without delay to the lab may be sufficient to recover salmonella but overgrowth by other bacteria is a concern with anything but a very fresh sample. Otherwise it is best to place 5 g of fecal material into Selenite or R10 broth which can be obtained from the lab.

Comment: Sensitivities are not included.

Reporting time: 48-72 hours, set up daily.

 

UREAPLASMA CULTURE

S215    

Specimen required: Requires one of the following: uterine, vaginal or urethral swabs, semen, uterine or aborted fetal tissue, tracheal wash or lung, urine-use swab or sterile container.

Comment: Can be run in combination with Mycoplasma culture, see price list.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

URINE CULTURE AND SENSITIVITY WITH COLONY COUNT

220    

Specimen required: 1 ml of urine in a sterile plastic tube/container.

Indication: Obtaining a colony count provides information as to the probable clinical significance of an isolate. Collection by sterile cystocentesis is recommended. Avoid contamination with feces.

Comment: A liquid sample of urine is required (a colony count cannot be provided from swab(s)). Rapid transport to the lab is essential. Antibiotic sensitivities as determined by disc diffusion are provided. It is not recommended that urine samples kept in the fridge be cultured after 72 hours.

Reporting time: 48-72 hours, set up daily.

 

UTERINE CULTURE (EQUINE)

209    

Specimen required: Culturette swab in transport media.

Indication: Usually done as part of routine pre-breeding screen.

Reporting time: Gram stain-24 hours, culture-48-72 hours, set up daily.

 

UTERINE CULTURE/CYTOLOGY

UCC

UTERINE CYTOLOGY

117 

Specimen required: One or more air-dried slides. Culture swab in transport media.

Indication: Determines the types of cells present associated with the superficial uterine mucosa. Culture usually done as part of pre-breeding screen.

Comments: If a swab is used, pre-moistening with saline will prevent cells from being absorbed into the swab and result in a more cellular preparation with more intact cells. Do not send swabs in transport media for culture and cytology since transport media affects staining and cell morphology.

Reporting time: Same day-cytology. Gram stain-24 hrs, culture 48-72 hrs.

 

YERSINIA CULTURE

221     

Specimen required: Feces or fluid (exudate) in a sterile tube.

Comment: This is a fastidious organism requiring special culture conditions (cold temperature).

Reporting time: Set up daily. Culture may require up to 30 days which, is to say, the culture will not be reported out as negative before 30 days.

 

BARTONELLA ePCR

BePCR

Specimen required: 4ml of whole blood, 0.5-3ml of joint fluid, CSF, pericardial effusion, etc.

Indication: Enrichment culture and PCR provides enhanced detection of Bartonella DNA and provides the most sensitive and specific test available for confirmation of active infection for a broad range of Bartonella species.

Reporting time: Send out to Galaxy Diagnostics, allow 2-3 weeks for reporting of results. Whole blood can be stored refrigerated for up to 2 weeks prior to shipping. Non-blood fluids can be refrigerated for up 2 weeks or frozen for up 2 months prior to shipping.

 

BARTONELLA HENSELAE TITER (CAT SCRATCH FEVER)

S263      

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: To test for antibody to B.henselae. A positive titer indicates exposure and possible infection.

Comment: Paired serum titers are recommended when infection is suspected.

Reporting time: Send out-North Carolina State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

BARTONELLA VINSONII TITER

S264  

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: To test for antibody to B. vinsonii. A positive titer indicates exposure and possible infection.

Comment: This test is only run on canines. Paired serum titers are recommended when infection is suspected.

Reporting time: Send out-North Carolina State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

  

BETAHYDROXYBUTYRATE

323   

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum.

Indication: Elevated serum betahydroxybutyrate can be associated with anorexia, cachexia, ketosis in cattle, diabetes mellitus and lipidosis in cats and dogs.

Comment: Can be added to the large animal profile. Add on price with profile $52.10.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BILE ACIDS

324  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum, SST or RT tube. Heparinized plasma may also be used.

Indication: Serum bile acids are a useful measure of hepatic function and integrity of the portal circulation. Bile acids have replaced blood ammonia levels for this purpose.

Comment: Bile acids can be measured on a single serum sample or as an add-on test. A single sample is all that is required in horses and birds. Sensitivity of a single resting bile acids measurement for detecting hepatic dysfunction is about 80%. In dogs and cats the sensitivity is increased to approximately 95% by measuring bile acids after a 12 hour fast and 2 hours after a meal.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BILE ACID PROFILE

325  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum (SST or RT) or heparinized plasma per sample.

Indication: A fasting (12 hours) and postprandial (2 hours) sample for determining bile acid levels is recommended for dogs and cats.

Note: Sedation of the animal can be done but is not recommended as it can interfere with the outcome of the test. ACTH and bile acid panels can be run simultaneously however varying protocols apply. (Refer to the ACTH response test for protocol). For example, if using Cortrosyn take the pre sample, administer Cortrosyn according to ACTH protocol, feed the dog a fat rich meal, wait one hour then collect the post ACTH sample and then wait another hour to collect the post bile acids sample. If using ACTH gel products the same pre and post samples could be used as the collection times are the same for both ACTH and the bile acids panel-two hours post. (Some recommend both a 60 and 120 minute sample for gel products). When running a bile acids profile on an animal with pancreatitis or prone to pancreatitis, feed the animal its regular meal (forgo the high fat meal) and indicate in the history the fact that the animal is prone to pancreatitis or has had pancreatitis in the past and the pathologist will interpret the results based on that information. 1-2 tbsp. of vegetable oil can be added to the food to increase fat content if necessary.

Protocol: The patient should be fasted for 12 hours in order to allow for filling of the gall bladder.

  1. Collect a baseline blood sample (0.5 ml serum).
  2. Feed a fat rich meal (any commercial diet with a high fat content or add 1-3 tsp of vegetable oil).
  3. Collect a second blood sample (0.5 ml serum) 2 hours after the meal was fed.

In order for the test to be successful the animal must have a full gall bladder at the beginning of the test and the gall bladder should empty after the meal to provide a challenge to the liver via the enterohepatic circulation. Problems with the test include incomplete fasting, premature gall bladder contraction (excitement, smell of food coupled with habitual feeding times), intestinal malabsorption and difficulty with feeding (anorexia, failure to eat adequately, insufficient fat in meal).

Comment: It is necessary to run the pre and post samples together to verify that a successful challenge was obtained.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BILIRUBIN DIRECT

388    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum.

Indication: Bilirubin represents a breakdown product of heme containing molecules (hemoglobin, cytochromes, etc.) Increases are associated with liver disease, abnormalities related to the bile duct system and in patients suffering hemolysis.

Comment: Direct bilirubin, representing conjugated bilirubin, cannot reliably distinguish between disease of the liver and hemolysis. Please note: Bilirubin direct will be run at no charge in combination with a profile if the bilirubin total is significantly elevated.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BILIRUBIN TOTAL

389    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum.

Indication: Total bilirubin includes conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.

Comment: Total bilirubin is a component of most chemistry profiles, not including avian/reptile profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BLASTOMYCES TITER

S609    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Purpose is to test for antibody to Blastomyces sp.

Comment: Paired serum titers, 2-3 weeks apart are recommended when infection is suspected and where initial titer (acute phase titer) is negative or low.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

  

BLOOD DONOR PROFILE

BDP-1    

BDP-2

Specimen required: 5 mls of EDTA or heparinized whole blood, 3 mls of serum in RT or SST tube, fresh feces and urine in a clean container. In addition, 0.5 ml BT plasma must also be submitted if requesting BDP2.

Indication: The blood donor profiles are constructed to determine the blood type of prospective candidates for blood donor programs and/or to provide a comprehensive health screen.

Comment: BDP1 includes: chemistry profile, CBC, urinalysis, T4, ova and parasite, microfilaria detection by filtration technique and serological testing for canine Brucella, Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Lyme’s by IFA technique and heartworm antigen by ELISA. BDP2 includes: same components as BDP1 plus canine blood typing and Von Willebrand factor analysis.

Reporting time: All components of both profiles are run in house Monday to Friday except Von Willebrand factor which is sent to Cornell University. Allow for 2-4 business days, longer if not all specimens are submitted at the same time. Allow 5-10 business days for Von Willebrand factor.

 

BLOOD PARASITE PANEL-CANINE IFA

662    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: This panel will check for antibody titers to Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, and Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever), Lyme’s, Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

Comment: Paired serum titers, 2-3 weeks apart are recommended when infection is suspected and where initial titer (acute phase titer) is negative or low.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

BLOOD TYPING (CANINE)

803    

Specimen required: 2 ml of whole blood in EDTA.

Indication: To determine DEA 1.1 type; considered a universal donor.

Comment: Both the card method and 1.1 antisera are used for testing.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

BLOOD TYPING (EQUINE)

S825  

Specimen required: 5 ml of whole blood in EDTA. Sample should be kept cool (ice pack) if there is to be a delay in receiving it.

Indication: To determine the pertinent blood groups and most commonly used to determine whether neonatal isoerythrolysis is a risk.

Reporting time: Send out-University of California, Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

BLOOD TYPING (FELINE)

805    

Specimen required: 2 ml of whole blood in EDTA.

Indication: There are three blood groups in cats, A, B and AB.

Comment: Cats with blood group B have strong alloantibodies to blood group A antigen whereas cats with blood group A have weak alloantibodies to group B antigen. AB type cats do not have alloantibody to either A or B antigen. AB type cats are considered universal donors but are rare. Severe transfusion reactions can occur if group A blood is given to group B cats. The reaction tends to be milder if group B blood is given to group A cats. Neonatal isoerythrolysis can occur in type A kittens born to a type B queen.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BLOOD UREA NITROGEN (BUN)

327    

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum, or EDTA plasma.

Indication: Blood urea nitrogen is a metabolic byproduct of protein metabolism excreted by the kidneys. BUN is a measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increases with pre-renal, renal and post-renal causes of reduced GFR. Mild increase in BUN can be associated with high intestinal bleeding and high protein diets. Decreased BUN can be associated with advanced liver disease and portosystemic shunt.

Comment: BUN is included in most chemistry profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

BLOOD UREA NITROGEN (BUN)/CREATININE (INCLUDES RATIO)

328  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml serum or EDTA plasma.

Indication: BUN and creatinine can be used to measure glomerular filtration rate and renal function and should be combined with a urinalysis.

Comment: The BUN/Creatinine Ratio is a calculated ratio included in all chemistry profiles that include BUN and creatinine as measured entities and will be run at no charge with these profiles and when requested with BUN/Creatinine submissions.

Reporting time: Same day.  

 

BRONCHIOALVEOLAR LAVAGE -REFER TO CYTOLOGY SECTION

 

BRUCELLA CANINE EXPORT

S245

Specimen required: 1 ml serum.

Comment: Export regulations for countries requiring Brucella canis screening specify AGID or an agglutination-based procedure and samples will be referred to KSU. Please indicate clearly on the requisition form whether Brucella testing is for export purposes. Microchip and destination information must be included.

Reporting time: Send out to Kansas State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

BRUCELLA CANINE IFA

245    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to Brucella canis by IFA.

Comment: In the event of a positive result, the serum will be sent to Cornell for confirmation by western blot. Because of the potential for delay, please allow for sufficient time if this test selection is part of a pre-breeding screen.

Reporting time: In house IFA-Run every day except weekends.

 

BUFFY COAT SMEAR-REFER TO CYTOLOGY SECTION

 

C

 

CALCIUM

329    

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum.

Indication: Measure of total calcium (ionized, bound and unbound).

Comment: Total calcium is a component of most chemistry profiles. Interference occurs in lipemic or lipemic/hemolysed samples.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

CALCIUM (IONIZED)

S330    

Specimen required: 750 ul of serum (SST or RT). Patient should be fasted. Spin down serum and keep cool, send with ice pack and or frozen.

Indication: Ionized calcium is the biologically active component in blood. Frequently run in conjunction with PTH.

Comment: Ionized calcium is pH sensitive, decreasing as pH of the sample increases. Specimen tubes should be kept stoppered to prevent equilibration of CO2 which could change the pH of the sample.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CALICIVIRUS-REFER TO FELINE CALICIVIRUS

 

CANINE ADENOVIRUS (INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS)

S600    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to canine adenovirus 1, the cause of Canine Infectious Hepatitis. An antibody titer to adenovirus 2 can be done but must be requested specifically.

Comment: Does not differentiate vaccine titer from titer due to exposure to wild virus. A rising titer between paired serum samples obtained 2-3 weeks apart is considered confirmation of infection.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CANINE DISTEMPER DIRECT FA

613    

Specimen required: Whole blood in EDTA, conjunctival smears or both.

Comment: Direct IFA for distemper antigen has low sensitivity. Refer to canine distemper virus PCR as part of respiratory tract panel (canine).

Reporting time: Send out-Phoenix Central Lab; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CANINE DISTEMPER TITER (ALSO SEE CANINE VACCINE TITER PANEL)

612    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: IFA test for antibody to canine distemper virus. Most often used as an immunization or vaccination screen.

Comment: Recent reports suggest canine distemper vaccines provide protection for at least 3 years. Can be ordered as a standalone test or part of the canine vaccine titer panel (distemper antibody titer and parvovirus titer).

Reporting time: Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

 

CANINE HERPES TITER

S614    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Testing for antibody to canine herpes.

Comment: Paired serum titers, 2-3 weeks apart are recommended when infection is suspected and where initial titer (acute phase titer) is negative or low.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CANINE VIRAL MATRIX PCR

SCVM

Specimen required: Swab or tissue (minimum of 5g). Submit swabs in sterile container with several drops of saline. Bacterial transport media are no suitable for PCR assays. Cotton, plastic, wood-handled, Dacron and other synthetic swab materials are acceptable.

Indication: This PCR assay will detect most if not all influenza virus types currently circulating in most species, including 2009 H1N1 and the 2015 Canine H3N8.

Comment: This assay does not specifically identify the influenza H and N types.

Reporting time: Send out to Cornell University, allow 3-5 business days.

 

CARDIAC TROPONIN

374    

Specimen required: Minimum of 0.25 ml of serum.

Indication: The troponin complex consists of 3 parts: Troponin-C is the calcium binding element, Troponin-I the actinomysin ATPase inhibitory binding element and Troponin-T the tropomyosin binding element. The complex regulates contractility of striated muscle. The cardiac isotope is larger than the striated equivalent and increases in serum with myocardial injury. The values increase within 3 hours of injury but remain elevated in man for 5 days post injury. Cardiac Troponin-I will increase in animals with cardiomyopathy as well as with inflammation of the myocardium (myocarditis). Reversible injuries associated with shock or trauma can also cause troponin elevations.

Reporting time: Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

 

CARNITINE

S377    

Specimen required: 3 ml of heparinized plasma or 10 ml of urine.

Indication: Carnitine deficiency can be associated with muscle and cardiac disease.

Reporting time: Send out-University of California, San Diego; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CBC 

General information:

A CBC on mammalian species includes WBC, RBC, HGB, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. In the majority of species a platelet count is also provided. An accurate platelet count is not possible in cats due to the tendency for platelets to clump in this species. Blood films are reviewed on all CBC submissions for purposes of evaluating red cell and white cell morphology, platelet morphology and an estimate of platelet number. Blood parasites, if present, are reported. The automated differential is checked for accuracy and a manual differential is substituted if the automated differential is deemed inaccurate.

 

CBC AND DIFFERENTIAL

808    

CBC AND DIFFERENTIAL REPEAT

R-CBC

Specimen required: Minimum of 0.5 ml of EDTA blood or heparinized whole blood.

Indication: See general comment for CBC. Is a component of several profiles and can be ordered as a standalone test or added on to a renal or liver profile.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CBC WITH DIFFERENTIAL AND PLASMA PROTEIN

809    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of EDTA whole blood or heparinized whole blood.

Comment: The plasma protein is determined by refractometer, lipemia interfere with hemolysis.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CBC WITH DIFFERENTIAL, PLASMA PROTEIN AND FIBRINOGEN

810    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of EDTA whole blood or heparinized whole blood.

Indication: Test of choice for horses and ruminants. Fibrinogen is an acute phase protein and increases in these species in response to inflammation, often before there are detectable changes in the CBC.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CELL COUNTS (RED AND WHITE CELL)

104    

Specimen required: Minimum of 0.25 ml of any fluid submitted in anticoagulant (EDTA or heparin).

Comment: Included with fluid cytology and CSF analysis.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID (CSF)-REFER TO CYTOLOGY SECTION

 

CHLORIDE

333    

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum.

Indication: Chloride is the major anion in extracellular fluid and is an integral component of the buffering system of the body.

Comment: Component of most chemistry profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CHOLESTEROL

334    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum, patient should be fasted.

Indication: Readily measured lipid moiety, increases with several endocrine disorders and can increase with protein losing nepropathy, cholestasis, liver disease or Addisons and or can decrease with malabsorption.

Comment: Component of the small animal comprehensive profile, endocrine profile and senior profile.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CHOLINESTERASE

S431 TRUE    

S430 PSEUDO      

Specimen required: True-2 ml of EDTA blood; pseudo-2 ml of frozen plasma, 20 g of fresh or frozen brain tissue can also be sent.

Indication: Test for acetylcholinesterase activity. Decreased levels are associated with organophosphate exposure/toxicity.

Comment: True acetylcholinesterase is present in red cells, muscle and nervous tissue and has a high affinity for acetylcholine. Pseudocholinesterase is present in plasma, liver and pancreas and hydrolyzes a number of esters including acetylcholine.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CK/AST-REFER TO MUSCLE GROUP

 

CO2 (TOTAL CO2)

332    

Specimen required: 0.25 ml of serum.

Indication: Total CO2 is equivalent to bicarbonate and is a measure of acid base status.

Comment: Component of most chemistry profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

COAGULATION FACTOR ANALYSIS

S813    

Specimen required: 1.0 ml of plasma from sodium citrate tube.

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. The RT tubes currently supplied by the lab are siliconized but please verify this before using the tube for transport of citrate plasma. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection.

 

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm

Indication: Able to test for factors VII to XII. Please indicate which factor(s) you would like to run. Cost indicated is per factor.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

COBALAMIN-REFER TO VITAMIN B12

 

COCCIDIOMYCES TITER (SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY FEVER)

S619    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to Coccidiomyces spp., a systemic fungal infection of animals and humans. The organism is primarily found in arid areas such as found in California, Texas and New Mexico.

Comment: Stand alone test or part of systemic fungal panel.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

COGGINS TEST-REFER TO EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (EIA)

 

COOMBS (CANINE OR FELINE)

818    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of EDTA whole blood. Note: Sample volume should be increased in relation to how anemic the animal is; ie. the more anemic the animal the more blood needed to run the test. Please call the lab if you have any questions regarding sample volume.

Indication: Test for immunoglobulin on the surface of red blood cells. Indicated when immune mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is suspected.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

COOMBS (EQUINE)

S819  

Specimen required: 2.0 ml of EDTA whole blood and two dry, (unfixed, unstained) blood smears.

Indication: Test for immunoglobulin on the surface of red blood cells.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

COPPER (SERUM)

S396    

COPPER (TISSUE)

S999

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum or 2 g of fresh, unfixed liver or kidney tissue. Liver tissue in paraffin block can be used but interference can occur. Sample size and quality are considerations. Biopsies with abundant adipose or connective tissue will not provide accurate copper levels.

Indication: Large animal-adequacy of copper in diet or copper toxicity; dog-copper storage disease.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CORONA VIRUS TITER (CANINE)

S621    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to corona virus, predominantly used to determine pre-vaccination titer.

Reporting time: Send out-Phoenix Central Laboratory; results generally available within 3-5 business days.

 

CORONA VIRUS TITER (FELINE)-FIP TITER

622  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum, third space fluid (effusion). Submit fluid in a RT tube.

Indication: Test for antibody to corona virus. An IFA method is used.

Comment: The coronavirus titer is a crude screen for FIP and a high titer alone is not diagnostic of infection. A high titer must be correlated with clinical and other clinicolaboratory findings.

Reporting time: Same day, except Saturday and Sunday.

 

CORTISOL-REFER TO ACTH RESPONSE TEST

 

CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE (CPK)

336    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum.

Indication: Present in high concentration in muscle. This is a leakage enzyme and increases in serum following and or during muscle injury. It rises rapidly following injury and has a short serum half-life, usually returning to normal within 24-48 hours.

Comment: Included with most chemistry profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CREATININE

337    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum. Plasma from an EDTA tube can also be used.

Indication: Creatinine is a measure of glomerular filtration rate. Increases with pre-renal, renal and post-renal causes of reduced GFR. Creatinine is produced in muscle tissue and low creatinine levels can be associated with significant decreases in muscle mass. Sample hemolysis causes false decreases in creatinine. Where uroabdomen is suspected, creatinine measured on the abdominal fluid and compared to serum creatinine can be useful in confirming the diagnosis.

Comment: Included in most chemistry profiles.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CROSSMATCH

8199    

Specimen required: 2 ml of serum and 2 ml of EDTA whole blood from both donor and recipient or a pigtail from donor animal for major only.

Indication: To test compatability between recipient and one or more blood donors.

Comment: Both major and minor crossmatches are carried out at 4 and 37 degrees celcius.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

CRYPTOCOCCUS TITER

628    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Agglutination test for cryptococcal antigen. Useful for confirming diagnosis and monitoring therapy. Titer should return to negative before antifungal therapy is discontinued. Note false negatives can occur with localized ocular, CNS or solitary cutaneous lesions.

Reporting time: Same day, except Saturday and Sunday.

 

CRYPTOSPORIDIA AND GIARDIA IFA

691    

Specimen required: fresh fecal sample in sterile container; can be submitted in SAF media.

Indication:  Detects shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in feces.

Comment: The test is a direct IFA using monoclonal antibodies to identify Cryptosporidium and Giardia organisms. IFA is more sensitive than other staining methods for detecting organisms and has the advantage over ELISA and PCR methods of identifying actual organisms (infection versus detection). The test will be negative if there is no active shedding at the time of sampling.

Reporting time: Daily except for weekends.

 

CULTURE-REFER TO BACTERIOLOGY SECTION

 

CYCLOSPORINE

S367    

Specimen required: 2 ml of EDTA blood. Peak: 2-4 hours post; trough: 12 hours post.

Indication: To monitor therapeutic drug levels. Note: Cyclosporine Parmacodynamic Assay (T cell function via qRT-PCR IL-2 and IFN-y) is available as a send out to Mississippi State University. (3 ml heparinized green top tube). Ideally check pre cyclosporine treatment and post. (A single sample once receiving cyclosporine is acceptable). This test helps determine the degree of immuosuppression at the level of the T cell itself. Please call the lab for pricing.

Reporting time: Send out-Prairie Diagnostic Services Monday through Thursday; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

CYTOCHEMISTRY (BLOOD/BONE MARROW)-REFER TO FLOWCYTOMETRY

  

CYTOLOGY

General information:

Cytology of fine needle aspiration (FNA) refers to the method of collecting cells via needle and syringe for microscopic examination. Cells can be caused to exfoliate from a solid lesion by placing a needle fixed to a syringe into the lesion and causing suction by drawing on the plunger. The needle is moved a short distance within the lesion while the negative pressure is applied or the needle is moved back and forth within the lesion and then negative pressure is applied by drawing on the plunger. The negative pressure is released prior to the needle being withdrawn from the lesion. Alternately, the needle can be used to harvest cells without a syringe or negative pressure attaching the syringe only to push the sample on to the slide. Fluid can be collected from body cavities, joints, via flushes or washes, by collecting urine or CSF and cells in the fluid can be evaluated cytologically. Fluid for cytology should be submitted in EDTA which acts as a preservative. It is always advisable to make fresh direct smears and submit them along with the fluid. This is especially true for urine and for fluids with low protein. Fluid submitted for culture should be submitted in a sterile red top tube since EDTA is bacteriostatic and fluid submitted in EDTA is unsuitable for bacteriologic culture. Air dried smears should be made promptly and with few exceptions, 2-3 slides per site and or lesion are usually sufficient. Do not put air dried smears in the refrigerator.

Examples of cytologic submissions include:

FNA of solid mass lesions, lymph node and lytic lesions, CSF analysis, third space effusion, joint fluid evaluation, transtracheal wash (TTW), bronchoalveolar lavage, nasal flush, semen evaluation, impression smears of mass lesions, buffy coat smears, uterine smears, vaginal smears and skin scrapings. Fecal material or preferably material collected from a rectal swab can be used to make smears for cytologic evaluation.

Whole blood in EDTA is used for preparation of buffy coat smears. Non clotted fluid or fluid that is not too viscous by nature or disease can be evaluated for white and red cell counts, protein and specific gravity in addition to cytology evaluation (request fluid cytology). CSF fluid is evaluated for protein, glucose as well as red and white cell counts. Techniques for collection of cytologic specimens are described in the procedures section of this manual. Please do not submit air dried smears in a container or ziploc bag along with formalin since formalin fumes will render the smears unsuitable.

PLEASE NOTE: IN THE CASE OF MULTIPLE FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATES, CYTOLOGIES ARE PRICED INDIVIDUALLY BASED ON SITE IE. LYMPH NODES ARE PRICED INDIVIDUALLY.

   

  D

 

D-DIMER, QUALITATIVE TEST Ddim

Specimen required: 0.5ml of plasma, collect into sodium citrate (BT tube). Centrifuge, collect plasma and place in an empty BT tube. If submitting a coagulation profile please include EDTA whole blood (LT).

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection. If submitting a coagulation profile please include EDTA whole blood (LT) tube.

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm

Indication: Similar to fibrin degradation products (FDPs), D-dimers are a product of fibrin degradation during fibrinolysis, however unlike FDPs, they are only formed from degradation of fibrin which has been terminally cross-linked by factor XIII. Like FDPs, D-dimers are increased in states of increased fibrinolysis (localized and disseminated intravascular coagulation, thrombosis, cavitary hemorrhage, inflammation, post-surgically) or decreased fibrin degradation product clearance (hepatic or renal failure), but are more specific for in vivo clot formation than FDPs. Reporting time: Daily, Mon-Sun.

  

DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION TEST (EQUINE)

511-2 (2 SAMPLES 0,19 HOURS)

511 (3 SAMPLES 0,15,19 HOURS)  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum or heparanized plasma per timed sample.

Indication: This test is designed to aid in the diagnosis of Cushing’s disease (PPID) in horses. Baseline insulin and plasma ACTH levels have tended to replace this test due to only one sample being required.

Protocol:

  1. At 5 pm draw a pre-injection blood sample into a labeled green top or RT/SST tube. Inject 40 ug dexamethasone/kg of body weight IM.
  2. At 8 am (15 hours) draw a second blood sample into a labeled tube (optional).
  3. At 12 noon (19 hours) draw a third blood sample.
  4. All blood samples should be spun as soon as possible after collection and then both the spun tubes and the separated samples submitted to the laboratory. There should be a minimum of 0.5 ml serum or plasma per sample. Times should be clearly labeled on all tubes.

Reporting time: Same day, except Sunday.

 

DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION TEST-HDDST (HIGH DOSE)

509  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum or heparinized plasma per sample. Please label tubes as to time of collection.

Note: The animal must be off all topical and systemic steroids for a minimum of 4-6 weeks prior to running this test. Anesthetic will not affect the test.

Indication: This test is designed to differentiate pituitary dependent Cushing’s from functional adrenocortical neoplasia (adrenal dependent Cushing’s) in the dog. A suppressive response to a high dose of dexamethasone is seen in about 70% of pituitary dependent Cushing’s and very few dogs with functional adrenal tumors. This leaves about 30% of dogs with pituitary dependent Cushing’s which do not suppress and which cannot be differentiated from dogs with functional adrenal tumors by this method. In cats the percentage is reported to be even lower, between 50-65%. Based on the ACVIM concensus statement of dogs with pituitary dependant Cushing’s 12% that did not suppress on a LDDST did on the HDDST.

Protocol: The high dose test is used after the diagnosis of Cushing’s disease is established. The test is an aid in differentiating pituitary based Cushing’s from adrenal tumors. It is based on the premise that adrenal tumors are autonomous producers of cortisol and will not discontinue production when an exogenous source of corticosteroid is given (loss of negative feedback). Endogenous ACTH can also be used as a screening test (refer to page 26 for more information).

CANINE

  1. Collect a baseline sample in a RT/SST or green top tube and separate as soon as possible.
  2. Inject 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone IM or IV (IV preferred) in dogs regardless of size.
  3. Collect a sample 8 hours post injection. Separate as soon as possible and submit both original tubes and spun samples to the laboratory. Make sure the samples are correctly labeled as to pre and 8 hours post. A minimum of 0.5 ml of serum or plasma per sample is required.

FELINE

  1. Collect a baseline sample in a RT/SST or green top tube and separate as soon as possible.
  2. Administer 1 mg/kg dexamethasone IM or IV (IV preferred).
  3. Collect samples at 4+8 hours post dexamethasone

Reporting time: Same day, except Sunday.

 

DEXAMETHASONE SUPPRESSION TEST - LDDST (LOW DOSE)

510 (0 AND 8 HOURS)

 

510-3 (0, 4 AND 8 HOURS)

Indication: This test is designed to diagnose Cushing’s disease in dogs. The LDDST has approximately 85% specificity and 90% sensitivity. Note that false positives can occur in sick patients. Testing should be delayed until concurrent illness has resolved. This test cannot be used to monitor Trilostane. This test cannot be used to diagnose iatrogenic Cushing’s. LDDST is preferred over ACTH stimulation for diagnosis in cats.

Note: The animal must be off all topical and systemic steroids for a minimum of 4-6 weeks prior to running this test. Anesthetic will affect the test.

Protocol:

CANINE 

Make sure to calculate dose based on active ingredient unique to certain preparations such as Dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Consider dilution in saline to ensure accurate dosing in small dogs.

  1. Collect a baseline sample in RT/SST or green top tube.
  2. Inject 0.01 mg/kg dexamethasone IM or IV (IV preferred).
  3. Collect 4 and 8 hour samples if possible or alternatively only an 8 hour sample.
  4. Separate as soon as possible and send all tubes clearly labeled as to collection times to the laboratory. A minimum of 0.5 ml serum or plasma is needed for each sample.

FELINE

  1. Collect a baseline sample in RT/SST or green top tube.
  2. Administer 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone IM or IV (IV preferred).
  3. Collect samples at 4 and 8 hours post dexamethasone.

FERRET

    1. Collect a baseline sample.
    2. Inject 0.2 mg dexamethasone IM or IV (IV preferred).
  • Collect 3 and 5 hours post injection. (Note: Protocols for doing dexamethasone suppression testing have been described for ferrets but this is not considered the test of choice in this species.

  

See www.endocrinevet.info/2012/05/helpful-tips-to-improve-accuracy-of-low.html

Reporting time: Same day, except Sunday. 

 

DIARRHEA PANEL (CANINE, FELINE AND EQUINE)

CDP-CANINE

FDP-FELINE  

EDP-EQUINE  

Specimen required: fresh feces .

Comment: The canine panel includes: C. difficile Toxins A and B (quantitative load), Cryptosporidium spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Canine Parvovirus 2. The feline panel includes: C. difficile Toxins A and B (quantitative load), Cryptosporidium spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, FCoV, Feline Parvovirus (panleukopenia), and Canine Parvovirus 2. The equine panel includes Clostridium difficile A@B elisa, Clostridium Perfringens A elisa, Salmonella culture and Anaerobic culture for Clostridium Perfringens. Please refer to our newsletter at www.tnvd.ca for further information.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days

 

DIGOXIN

338    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Therapeutic drug monitoring.

Comment: It takes an average 10 days to achieve a steady state level. Blood should be drawn 2-4 hours post-pill.

Reporting time: Same day, except Saturday and Sunday.

 

DIRECT FECAL SMEAR-REFER TO CYTOLOGY SECTION

 

DISTEMPER-REFER TO CANINE DISTEMPER

 

E

EHRLICHIA CANIS TITER IFA (TROPICAL CANINE PANCYTOPENIA) (ALSO SEE BLOOD PARASITE PANEL

634    

Specimen required; 0.5 ml of serum. Avoid hemolysis.

Indication: Test for antibody to E. canis. This is a tick borne disease spread by the brown dog tick and prevalent in the southern U.S.

Comment: Stand alone test or is part of the blood parasite panel at $106.26. Paired titers (acute and convalescent samples, 2-4 weeks apart) are recommended where infection is highly suspected but initial titer is negative. Results from Ehrlichia IFA tests are sufficient for export submissions. Please include microchip # on requisition form in these instances.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

EHRLICHIA CANIS (PCR)

S633    

Specimen required: 2 ml of EDTA whole blood, buffy coat.

Indication: Test for antigen and permits diagnosis in the early phase of infection.

Comment: PCR will be negative if patient has received antibiotic therapy and or in later (chronic) stages of the disease.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

EHRLICHIA EQUI-REFER TO ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM

 

EHRLICHIA PLATYS-REFER TO ANAPLASMA PLATYS  

 

ELECTROLYTES

340    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum, minimum.

Indication: This panel includes sodium, potassium, phosphorus, total calcium, chloride and total CO2.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (EIA-COGGINS)

620    

 (ADDITIONAL $2.00 FEDERAL TAX APPLIED TO EACH SUBMISSION)

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum. This is a reportable disease and must be accompanied by an accurate and completely filled out federal government form.

Indication: Test for antibody to EIA virus.

Comment: This is an ELISA based test. Additional charges will apply if submitter requests commercial courier of Coggins report(s) back to the clinic. Federal regulations prohibit reporting of results over the phone or by email and owners are not allowed to pick up completed forms from the laboratory. Batch testing applies if 6 or more Coggins are submitted at the same time by the clinic.

Reporting time: Same day, except Sunday.

 

EQUINE NEONATAL ISOERYTHROLYSIS (BLOOD TYPING)

S915    

Specimen required: 2 ml of serum (no EDTA required for this test unless mare has had a previous NI foal. Send EDTA in this case). Allow blood from a 10 ml red top tube to clot for 30 minutes, spin and separate the serum into another tube.

Indication: To define mare’s major blood group and risk to foal of isoerythrolysis.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

EQUINE NEONATAL ISOERYTHROLYSIS (CROSS MATCH)

904    

Specimen required: 2 ml of colostrum and 2 ml of EDTA whole blood from foal.

Indication: Test for antibody in mare’s colostrum to neonate red cells.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

EQUINE PREPURCHASE DRUG SCREEN

S415  

Specimen required: 20 ml of heparinized whole blood, 5ml of heparanized plasma or 50 ml of urine. These samples should be refrigerated and shipped on ice pack to the reference laboratory. Please send sample directly to Cornell Laboratories.

Comment: Acid and basic drug screens are available. Please contact the lab for specific information. Cost is per sample, per screen.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

EQUINE PROTOZOAL MYELOENCEPHALITIS (EPM)-REFER TO SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA

  

EQUINE RHINOPNEUMONITIS (HERPES) TITER

S664    

EQUINE VIRAL ARTERITIS TITER

S663    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to equine viral arteritis virus or rhinopneumonitis virus.

Comment: Negative titer may be seen in the acute phase of infection. Paired serum titers, 2-4 weeks apart are recommended in this case.

Reporting time: Send out-Abbotsford Health Center; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ESTROGEN- REFER TO ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE (AMH)

 

ESTRONE SULFATE

S531    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: This entity is a product of the conceptus and is a test for pregnancy in horses, miniature horses and donkeys.

Comment: Accuracy is greatest after 60 days. Equivocal results may be obtained with pregnancies prior to 60 days. Levels are lower in miniature horses. It is imperative to correctly identify the breed of horse being tested.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

ETHYLENE GLYCOL IN FOOD

S410    

Specimen required: 50 g of food or stomach contents.

Indication: To determine if there is contamination of food source. Performed by gas chromatography.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

  

ETHYLENE GLYCOL IN SERUM

410      

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum.

Indication: Ingestion of antifreeze containing ethylene glycol will result in detectable levels in the blood stream within 15-30 minutes of ingestion. Maximum levels occur within 8-12 hours post ingestion and then rapidly decline so levels are often undetectable by 48 hours post ingestion.

Comment: For treatment to be effective it should be initiated within the first 4-8 hours post ingestion. There is no interference from propylene glycol in food however if activated charcoal has been administered to the animal it can affect the test.

Reporting time: This test is run as a STAT whenever it is received, during regular lab hours.

 

F

 

FECAL MICROSCOPY-REFER TO CYTOLOGY SECTION

 

FELINE CALICIVIRUS (ALSO SEE FELINE VACCINE TITER PANELAND RESPIRATORY TRACT PANEL)

670    

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to feline calicivirus, an IFA method is used.

Comment: Does not differentiate titers due to vaccination or infection. Paired titers 2-4 weeks apart are recommended when investigating respiratory disease in cats. Can be ordered as a standalone test or as a part of the feline vaccination panel (includes feline calicivirus, herpes virus and feline parvovirus [panleukopenia]).

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

FELINE HERPES VIRUS TITER (ALSO SEE FELINE VACCINE TITER PANEL AND RESPIRATORY TRACT PANEL

638   

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to herpes virus in cats, an IFA method is used.

Comment: Does not differentiate titers due to vaccination or infection. Paired titers 2-4 weeks apart are recommended when investigating respiratory disease in cats. Can be ordered as a standalone test or as a part of the feline vaccination panel (includes feline calicivirus, herpes virus and feline parvovirus titer [panleukopenia]).

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV)

639

  

FIV/FELV

646

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to FIV, an IFA method is used.

Comment: Does not distinguish titers due to vaccination or infection. Kittens should be considered positive only after test is positive at >6 months of age. Infected mothers can transfer FIV antibodies to nursing kittens.

Reporting time: FIV: Same day except Saturday and Sunday. FELV: Same day.

 

FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS (FELV ELISA)

640  

 

FELV/FIV

646  

Specimen required: 0.1 ml of serum or EDTA plasma.

Indication: Test for viral antigen.

Comment: Vaccination does not interfere, i.e., vaccinated cats will not have a positive ELISA test.

Reporting time: FELV: Same day. FIV: Same day except Saturday and Sunday.

 

FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS (FELV IFA)

S641  

Specimen required; 1 ml of EDTA blood or 4 buffy coat smears, or air dried bone marrow smears. Do not stain, refrigerate or freeze slides.

Indication: Test for cell-associated virus/viral antigen. Has greater specificity but lower sensitivity than the ELISA test.

Reporting time: Send out-Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory; results generally available within 3-5 business days.

  

FELINE PARVOVIRUS TITER (PANLEUKOPENIA) (ALSO SEE FELINE VACCINE TITER PANEL AND DIARRHEA PANEL)

642  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody for parvovirus in cats, an IFA method is used.

Comment: Can be ordered as a standalone test or as a part of the feline vaccination panel (includes feline calicivirus, herpes virus and feline parvovirus titer [panleukopenia]).

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

FERRITIN

S380    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of non hemolyzed serum. Freeze immediately and ship to the lab on ice.

Indication: Serum ferritin is used as a measure of the iron status of the patient. It is an acute phase reactive protein.

Comment: Test can be run on the following species: dog, cat, horse, rhino, tapir, primate/lemur, fur seal and dolphin.

Reporting time: Send out-Kansas State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

FIBRINOGEN

326    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of EDTA whole blood.

Indication: Fibrinogen is an acute phase reactive protein and is an earlier indicator of inflammation in large animal species.

Comment: Included as a part of large animal CBC. Can be ordered as an add-on to a profile.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

FIP-REFER TO CORONA VIRUS TITER-FELINE

 

FLOW CYTOMETRY      

SFLOW

Specimen required: 1 ml EDTA whole blood (0.5 ml minimum) and hematology report run within 48 hours of submission, 2 EDTA tubes if sent without current hematology report

Indication: This is the preferred test for identifying lymphoid neoplasia in cats and dogs with lymphocytosis and can also be used to identify the cell type in other forms of leukemia.

Comments: The test can only be run on cats and dogs.  This is an interpretive test using antibodies to identify undifferentiated cells in circulation and if lymphocyte populations are clonal or heterogeneous/reactive.  It can differentiate between B and T cell neoplasia and is more sensitive (fewer false negatives) than PARR testing.  It is the preferred test for identifying what type of leukemia is present and replaces blood and bone marrow cytochemistry.  The test requires a fresh sample, preferable < 48 hours old.  This requires co-ordination with the lab to ensure the sample arrives in optimal condition.  PLEASE PHONE THE COURIER DEPARTMENT IN ADVANCE OF SENDING THIS TEST.

Reporting time: Send out-Colorado State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

FRACTIONAL EXCRETION (URINE/SERUM)

335    

Specimen required: 0.25 ml of serum and a minimum of 1 ml of urine.

Indication: Affords a measure of renal function. Clearances of Na, K, Cl, Ca and Phos are determined.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

FREE T4

S551    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum minimum.

Indication: To measure the unbound fraction of thyroxine. Equilibrium dialysis is the method used.

Comment: In a small percentage of cases, FT4 may be helpful in the diagnosis of occult hyperthyroidism in cats. In dogs FT4 is less susceptible to interference from euthyroid sick syndrome than the T4 test. A normal free T4 will rule out hypothyroidism if the total T4 is low.

Reporting time: Send out-Phoenix Central Laboratory; results generally available within 3-5 business days.

 

FRUCTOSAMINE

342  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum or grey top plasma.

Indication: Fructosamine represents albumin bound glucose. Measuring fructosamine is useful for differentiating transient and persistent hyperglycemia and for monitoring insulin therapy. Interpret fructosamine in light of albumin. Hyperthyroidism and hypoproteinemia/hypoalbuminemia will cause a false decrease in fructosamine.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

FUNGAL PANEL (SYSTEMIC)

S661  

Specimen required: 1 ml serum.

Indication: Measures antibody levels against Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Histoplasma, Coccidioides and Cryptococcus. Screening test only.

Comment: A positive result only indicates exposure – further testing may be required to confirm infection.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

G

 

GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT)

343   

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or heparinized plasma.

Indication: This enzyme is produced by the epithelial cells lining the biliary tract. Elevated GGT can be seen with cholestasis and or disease of the biliary system.

Comment: Component of small animal, small mammal, equine and large animal profiles. Medications such as NSAIDS and glucocorticoids can induce GGT. Very high GGT levels are seen in foals and calves that have ingested colostrum. Sample hemolysis can falsely elevate GGT.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

GASTRIN

S381  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum for a baseline sample. Patient should be off H2 blockers and fasted 24 hours. Spin, harvest serum and freeze, send on ice.

Indication: Test for gastrin-secreting tumor (Zollinger Ellison syndrome). May submit 15 minute, 30 minute, 45 minute and 60 minute post samples. Cost is $125.00 for panel price of five samples.

Comment: Contact the True North send out department before sending sample.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results may take up to 3 weeks.

 

GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIA IFA-REFER TO CRYPTOSPORIDIA AND GIARDIA IFA

  

GLOBULINS

344  

Indication: Represent a fraction of the total protein in serum. Globulins as reported as a component of most chemistry profiles are calculated by subtracting albumin from total protein. Protein electrophoresis provides a quantitative measurement of globulins.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

GLUCOSE

345 (SERUM)    

 

352 (GREY TOP PLASMA)  

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or grey top plasma.

Indication: To measure blood glucose levels.

Comment: Blood collected into a RT should be spun immediately and the serum collected into a second RT. SST should be spun immediately. Glucose will decrease if the serum is allowed to sit on the cells. Grey top tubes should be spun and the plasma removed and placed in a second grey top tube. Glucose is a component of all profiles. Please note: If submitted with a profile, grey glucose will be run at no charge to the client.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

GLUCOSE MULTIPLE

362    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or plasma taken at multiple timed intervals. Up to 5 samples can be submitted.

Indication: Checking diabetic control in dogs and cats, evaluating intestinal absorption in horses (glucose tolerance test).

Comment: Price includes up to five separate samples.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR PANEL-REFER TO REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE PANEL

 

H

 

HEARTWORM ANTIBODY TEST (FELINE ONLY)

S644    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to Dirofilaria immitis cuticular and somatic antigens. May aid in the diagnosis of occult heartworm infection, especially those associated with the eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

HEARTWORM ANTIGEN TEST

645

Specimen required; 0.5 ml of serum or EDTA plasma.

Indication: Test for adult female heartworm antigen. An ELISA method is used.

Comment: Sensitivity and specificity are in the 95% percentile range.

Reporting time: Same day, except Saturday and Sunday.

 

HEMATOCRIT (PCV, HCT)

812  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of EDTA or 1 capillary tube.

Indication: To measure the ratio of RBCs to total blood volume.

Comment: Included with all CBC’s.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

HEMOBARTONELLA-REFER TO MYCOPLASMA

 

HEMOGLOBIN

820    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml EDTA.

Indication: Represents a measure of oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

Comment: Included in all CBC’s.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

HISTOPATHOLOGY

General information:

Primary fixatives: 10% buffered formalin is the most commonly used fixative. 10% buffered formalin is made by diluting 1 part 37% formaldehyde in 9 parts distilled water. Bouin’s solution: used for submission of equine uterine biopsies and enucleated eyes. Eyes can be submitted in 10% buffered formalin.

Please submit in leak proof container(s) and protect from freezing during winter months. It is imperative to provide biopsy site(s), species and pertinent history.

The histology reports provided are of two general types.

Short reports will provide a morphologic diagnosis, etiologic diagnosis where possible and comments pertaining to cause, expected behavior, prognosis and margin read out where any or all are applicable. The short format does not include microscopic description and is intended for submissions where the practitioner’s primary concerns are diagnosis and margin read out ie. proliferative lesions that historically and or clinically are likely to be benign.

Full reports include diagnosis, microscopic description and comments. Comments include cause, expected behavior, references, prognosis and margin read out where any or all are applicable.

 

FULL REPORT-ONE TISSUE

702    

Specimen required: One tissue sample which may include a single lesion and or mass, submitted in 10% buffered formalin. One can choose this format for up to 4 biopsies of the skin and multiple biopsies of a single organ (ie. liver or intestine but not both).

Comment: Report will include diagnosis, microscopic description and comments.

Reporting time: 2-5 days except tissues requiring special treatment, additional fixation, inspection and or dissection by a pathologist.

 

FULL REPORT-MULTIPLE TISSUES (2-5)

703  

Specimen required: 2-5 tissue samples that may include but not be limited to multiple masses or multiple organs submitted in 10% buffered formalin.

Comment: Report will include diagnosis, microscopic description and comments.

Reporting time: 2-5 days except tissues requiring special treatment, additional fixation, inspection and or dissection by a pathologist.

 

FULL REPORT-MULTIPLE TISSUES (6-8)

704  

Specimen required: 6-8 tissue samples which may include, but not be limited to, multiple masses, multiple organs, multiple lymph nodes, submitted in 10% buffered formalin.

Comment: Report will include diagnosis, microscopic description and comments.

Reporting time: 2-5 days except tissues requiring special treatment, additional fixation, inspection and or dissection by a pathologist.

 

FULL REPORT-MULTIPLE TISSUES (>8)

705    

Specimen required: This format accommodates a large number of tissues and is most suited for specimens procured during in-hospital necropsy examination (“necropsy in a bottle”).

Comment: Report will include diagnosis, microscopic description and comments.

Reporting time: 2-5 days except tissues requiring special treatment, additional fixation, inspection and or dissection by a pathologist.

 

SHORT REPORT-ONE TISSUE

700  

Specimen required: One tissue sample which may include a single lesion and or mass, submitted in 10% buffered formalin.

Comment: Report will include diagnosis and comments. Microscopic description is not included.

Reporting time: 2-5 days except tissues requiring special treatment, additional fixation, inspection and or dissection by a pathologist.

 

SHORT REPORT-MULTIPLE TISSUES (2-5)

701  

Specimen required: up to 5 tissues, submitted in 10% buffered formalin.

Comment: Report will include diagnosis/diagnoses and comments. Microscopic description is not included. An example where one might choose this format is when multiple (up to 5) benign appearing skin tumors are removed and submitted.

Reporting time: 2-5 days except tissues requiring special treatment, additional fixation, inspection and or dissection by a pathologist.

 

HISTOPATHOLOGY-IMMUNOPEROXIDASE (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY)

720    

(CONTACT PATHOLOGIST PRIOR TO SUBMISSION FOR PRICING)

Specimen required: The immunoperoxidase technique can be performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue and can be used to stain for a variety of infectious agents, tumor markers and tissue markers.

Indication: Detection of infectious agents in section, aid in differentiating histologically poorly differentiated tumors, B and T cell typing of lymphosarcoma.

Comment: Tissues that have had to undergo decalcification may not be suitable for immunoperoxidase staining due to irretrievable antigen loss.

Reporting time: Currently in house immunohistochemical staining is limited to CD3, CD18 and CD20. Staining for other markers whether tumor related or for infectious agents is done on a send out basis to either Michigan State or Prairie Diagnostic Services so allow for 5-7 business days. Longer times usually reflect need to repeat in order to verify results.

 

HISTOPATHOLOGY-NECROPSY

706      

CONTACT PATHOLOGIST FOR PRICING

Specimen required: Please submit whole body, preferably not frozen, double bagged and securely tied or bound so as to prevent leakage. Due to the restrictions of our facility to perform necropsies, animals of greater than 10 kg will not be accepted.

Comments: It will be at the pathologist’s discretion whether to perform a necropsy on bodies in an advanced state of decomposition. There will be an extra charge for removal of the spinal cord. The necropsy will include gross examination of the major organ systems and relevant samples of tissues will be taken for histopathologic examination. The necropsy price will include one culture specimen for routine aerobic culture for ID only (no sensitivities). Pricing is based entirely on professional time required of pathologist in which to perform the necropsy.  If you would like a more definitive price please contact the pathologist prior to submission to discuss the case. Quotes from laboratory staff are for general information purposes only.

Remains following necropsy will not be released back to the owner or veterinary clinic/practice. Arrangements can be made to have the remains delivered to an appropriate service for purposes of private cremation if so desired. Please specify if cremation is to be communal or private and if there is a preferred cremation company. Please note that final necropsy reports can take up to 6 weeks to complete.

Reporting time: Please call the lab for reporting times.

 

HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM TITER

S646  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to H. capsulatum (histoplasmosis).

Comment: Positive titer is highly correlated with infection. Most clinical cases are recognized in the chronic stages and a false negative titer is uncommon. Test can be ordered alone or as part of a fungal panel (systemic) (S661) in combination with Aspergillosis, Blastomyces, Coccidiomycosis and Cryptococcosis.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

HYPERKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS

As this test is not handled by True North Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, please forward all request for information and submission of this test directly to:

Veterinary Genetics Laboratory,

University of California, Davis

Old Davis Road,

Davis, California 95616 Telephone: (530) 752-2211/Fax: (530) 752-3556

 

I

 

IMMUNOGLOBULINS PANEL (CANINE)

S999

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Comment: Run as a panel comprised of IgG, IgM and IgA.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

IMMUNOGLOBULINS-IgG ONLY-IN HOUSE (EQUINE)

907    

Specimen required: 1 ml serum

Indication: IgG measured by turbidimetric method. Primary indication is to confirm failure of passive transfer. Can be sent out as individual tests (IgG, IgM and IgA) to UC Davis at a cost of $133.00 each.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

INSULIN

518    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum, preferably after a 12 hour fast, cool and send with an ice pack. Horses do not need to be fasted.

Indication: Increased insulin is seen in dogs with insulin secreting tumors and in horses with Cushing’s disease.

Comment: Proper handling of sample is critical. Reference intervals are established for dog, cat and horse. Rarely indicated in cats.

Reporting time: Same day, except Sunday.

 

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR

S519    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum. Send with ice pack.

Indication: Also known as somatomedin c. This is the test of choice for diagnosis of acromegaly. Ideally check at the beginning when diabetes is first diagnosed if any suspicion as well as after 6-8 weeks of insulin therapy.

Comment: On TVND requisition form request other, under endocrinology.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

IRON PROFILE

383    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Used as a measure of iron status. Includes serum iron, TIBC and % saturation.

Reporting time: Same day, Monday through Friday.

L

LEAD

S423    

Specimen required: 500 ul EDTA in LT or heparinized whole blood in green top tube.

Indication: Test for blood levels of lead, ie. toxicosis.

Comment: Lead can also be measured in tissues-liver or kidney at a cost of $87.60 per tissue.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-7 business days. Tissues samples-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

LEISHMANIA (ELISA)

S648    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to Leishmania spp. May be required for export to certain countries. Consult district veterinarian and or consulate/embassy of destination country. Please include microchip # when submitting for export.

Reporting time: Send out-Kansas State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

LEPTOSPIRA TITER (CANICOLA MAT FOR EXPORT)

S649    

 

LEPTOSPIRA PANEL SEROVAR 6 SEROLOGY

S650

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to Leptospira serovars. May be required for export to certain countries. Consult district veterinarian and or consulate/embassy of destination country. Contact courier department prior to submission if clarification of testing requirements necessary.

Comment: Does not distinguish titer due to vaccination vs infection. Paired serum samples collected 7-14 days apart to demonstrate a rising titer may be necessary to confirm infection. If testing for export purposes, please include microchip and destination information. A four fold rise in titer is required to support active infection. Antibiotics may blunt the rise in titer. Some dogs may achieve seroconversion within 3-5 days.

Reporting time: Send out-Kansas State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

LEPTOSPIRA URINE OR WHOLE BLOOD PCR

S651

Specimen required: 2 mls of whole blood in edta (LT tube), 2 mls of urine in sterile, leak proof container.

Indication: Organisms are highest in the blood in the first 10 days of infection. PCR is a sensitive means of detecting organism DNA when present but samples should be collected before antibiotic therapy.

Comment: Preferable to serologic testing in the acute stages of infection.

Reporting time: Send out to Abbotsford Animal Health Laboratory, allow for 2-5 days reporting time.

 

LIPASE

347    

LIPASE/AMYLASE

315  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Elevated lipase is seen in dogs with acute pancreatitis. Increased lipase in cats correlates with pancreatitis but is inconsistent in this species.

Comment: May increase with renal disease or other causes of reduced GFR in dogs and variably in cats.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

LYME DISEASE TITER (ALSO SEE BLOOD PARASITE PANEL)

650    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Test for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi by IFA.

Comment: Does not distinguish between vaccine titer and titer due to infection. Multiplex may be needed to confirm titer due to infection and is offered as a send out to Cornell University at a cost of $95.50. Consult the laboratory. This test can also be ordered as part of the Blood Parasite Panel at a cost of $106.26. Please note that this laboratory does not accept ticks. Please contact the BC Centre for Disease Control for submission instructions (604-707-2629).

Reporting time: Monday, Wednesday and Friday.  

 

M

 

MAGNESIUM

348    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum or 1 ml of heparinized plasma.

Indication: Decreased Mg can be seen in cattle with tetany and intensive fluid therapy and can be associated with cardiac dysfunction and weakness. Decreased Mg can also exacerbate hypokalemia in small animals. Increased Mg can be associated with renal disease.

Comment: Serum Mg does not accurately reflect total body Mg. This is a normal component of the large animal profile.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

MAGNESIUM (IONIZED)

349

Specimen required: 0.5ml of serum.

Indication: Ionized (unbound) Mg is the metabolically active form and may be more sensitive than total Mg in revealing altered serum levels. Measurement of ionized Mg should be considered in animals with gastrointestinal disease and which are hypocalcemic.

Comment: Consult laboratory prior to sample collection concerning shipping requirements.

Reporting time: Send out, Michigan State University, allow for 5-10 business days.

 

MARE PREGNANCY PANEL

S520    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Panel includes progesterone and estrone sulfate.

Comment: Requisition form-request other, under endocrinology.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis (both tests); results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS (2M ANTIBODY TEST)

S910  

Specimen required: 1-2 ml of serum.

Indication: Positive test result is consistent with a diagnosis of masticatory myositis.

Comments: Once the disease process becomes inactive and muscle tissue is replaced by fibrosis, the antibody titer may diminish to undetectable levels. Immunosuppressive doses of steroids should be withheld a minimum of 3-4 weeks prior to testing.

Reporting time: Send out-UC San Diego; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

METALDEHYDE (SLUG BAIT)

S417

Specimen required: 50 gms of stomach content or food.

Indication: Test for toxic agent in food, bait or stomach contents.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

MICROFILARIA (KNOTT’S TEST)

675 

Specimen required: 1 ml EDTA blood. The blood should be tested within 24 hours of collection.

Indication: Filtration of lysed whole blood and microscopic examination for microfilaria.

Comment: There are various situations where heartworm infection can be present but microfilaria are absent i.e., such as testing during pre-patent period, unisex infection, infection with low numbers of worms, etc.

Reference: www.heartwormsociety.org

Reporting time: Same day, except Sunday.

  

MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PANEL

SMDR1

Specimen required: 2 ml EDTA whole blood or call lab and request special swab.

Indication: The MDRI gene encodes P-glycoprotein, a drug transport pump that plays an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution (particularly to the brain), as well as enhancing the excretion of many drugs used in dogs. Some dogs, particularly herding breeds, have a mutation in the MDR1 gene, leaving them defective in their ability to limit drug absorption and distribution. These dogs also have delayed excretion of drugs that are normally transported by P-glycoprotein.

Comments: Drugs affected by the MDR1 gene mutation include: Acepromazine, Butorphanol, Doxorubicin, Erythromycin, Ivermectin, Loperamide, Milbemycin, Moxidectin, Rifampin, Selamectin, Vinblastine and Vincristine.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

MUSCLE BIOPSY (UC DAVIS, SAN DIEGO)

S720 

Specimen required: Biopsy of muscle from an affected muscle group or groups. The biopsy should be approximately 0.5 x 0.5 x 1 cm and should be taken from the affected, but not end-stage, muscle by an open biopsy procedure. The sample should be placed directly into a dry watertight container and kept cold (refrigerated) and shipped to the laboratory on ice packs. A second biopsy of smaller size should be placed in formalin.

Indication: To identify abnormalities of muscle and muscle metabolism associated with persistently or intermittently elevated muscle enzymes, generalized muscle weakness, muscle wasting or exercise intolerance.

Comment: Includes histologic and metabolic evaluation of the muscle. This is the test of choice for muscular dystrophies.

Reference: vetneuromuscular.ucsd.edu

Reporting time: Send out-UC San Diego; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

MUSCLE GROUP (AST AND CPK)

316 

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: AST and CPK are present in high concentration in muscle tissue and increase in serum with muscle injury. Marked elevations are seen in the acute stages of tying up in horses.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

MYCOPLASMA (HEMOFELIS, HEMOMINUTIUM, HEMOCANIS)

827  

Specimen required: Air dried smears of peripheral blood and or 0.5 ml EDTA whole blood.

Indication: Microscopic examination for the blood parasites M. hemocanis, M. hemofelis and Candidatus M. hemominutium.

Comment: Included at no charge as part of all routine CBC’s. Parasitism is transient and a negative microscopic exam does not rule out infection.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

MYCOPLASMA HEMOFELIS-PCR (FORMERLY HEMOBARTONELLA FELIS)

S645 

Specimen required: Minimum of 0.5 ml of whole blood in EDTA.

Indication: This PCR assay detects M. hemofelis (large form) and Candidatus M. hemominitum (small form).

Comment: Infected animals currently on antibiotic therapy often have negative test results.

Reporting time: Send out-University of Illinois; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

MYOGLOBIN-URINE

S342 

Specimen required: Minimum of 5 ml of urine.

Indication: Test for breakdown product of this heme containing, muscle rich protein, when there is reddish-brown discoloration of the urine.

Comment: Clinical signs, CBC and serum chemistries usually obviate the need for running this test.

Reporting time: Send out-Phoenix Central Laboratory ;results generally available within 3-5 business days.

 

N

 

NEOSPORA CANINUM TITER (IFA)

653 

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures antibody titers to this parasite in dogs, cats and horses.

Comments: Titers may take 2-4 weeks to develop.

Reporting time: Monday, Wednesday and Friday. 

O

 

OCCULT BLOOD

394  

Specimen required: Feces or gastric contents, preferably after 48 hours of feeding a meat-free (dairy and eggs are acceptable dietary protein alternatives for this test; boiled chicken breasts are less optimal).

Indication: Detects evidence of low-grade blood loss into the GIT.

Comments: The test will cross react with myoglobin in the diet.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ORAL SUGAR TEST

OGT

Specimen required: 1 ml serum or EDTA plasma for each sample.

Indication: This test is more sensitive than a single insulin baseline for detecting EMS. The horse must be fasted overnight before performing this test.

  1. Collect a baseline (or Pre) blood specimen into either a plain red top or lavender top collection tube and follow specimen processing as described below (Sample Collection and Processing Guidelines)
  2. Give 0.15 mL/kg (approximately 75 ml) Karo Light corn syrup orally.
  3. Collect additional blood specimens at 60 and 90 minutes after administration using the same type of collection tubes used in Step 1. Process the specimens and submit all samples together as described below.

Sample Collection and Processing Guidelines:

  1. Collect blood into a plain red top collection tube for serum or a lavender top tube (EDTA) for plasma
  2. For plasma, gently invert the lavender top tube several times immediately after collection to mix anti-coagulant and refrigerate specimen until centrifugation.
  3. For serum, allow the red top blood specimen adequate time to clot prior to centrifugation to avoid fibrin formation and ensure sufficient serum yield. This can be at room temperature or refrigerate if longer than one hour will be needed before centrifugation.
  4. After centrifugation, immediately transfer serum or plasma into a vial suitable for shipping and frozen storage.
  5. Frozen storage is recommended unless samples are being shipped the day taken. A frozen sample is not necessary but the samples should arrive chilled. Ship samples with cold packs using an overnight courier service.

*Avoid use of serum collection tubes with additives (ie. separator gels, clot activators, inhibitors, etc. ) due to potential assay interference.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell Animal Health; results generally available between 5-10 business days.

 

OSMOLALITY (CALCULATED)

399 

This is a parameter that is calculated from the values for glucose, urea nitrogen, sodium and potassium. It is included at no charge as part of the chemistry profile and all profiles that include the constituent analytes and is useful in assessing conditions involving solute imbalances.

 

OVA AND PARASITE

679

Specimen required: Minimum 5 g of fresh or digitally collected feces in a sterile container (can use SAF if preferred but not necessary).

Indication: Detects ova and parasites. The technique used is the Ethyl acetate/formalin sedimentation technique which will concentrate both ova and larvae, ie. lungworm; so a Baermann technique is not required. This technique has been shown to be suitable for recovering ova of common metazoan parasites, cysts and trophozoites of Giardia and Tritrichomonas sp and free larval forms.

Comments: Full parasite identification may incur additional charges if consultation with a veterinary parasitologist is required (see parasite identification).

Reporting time: Same day.

OVA AND PARASITE (QUANTITATIVE TEST)

678 

Specimen required: Minimum 5 g of fresh feces.

Indication: Quantifies the number of ova as a measure of parasite load.

Comments: In production animals estimating parasite load may be useful.

Reporting time: Same day.

P

 

PCV (PACKED CELL VOLUME)

826    

Specimen required: 1 ml EDTA whole blood or 1 capillary tube.

Indication: Measures the ratio of erythrocytes to total blood volume.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

PARASITE IDENTIFICATION

S656   

Specimen required: Ectoparasite, larva, tapeworm segment or ova.

Indication: Parasites that cannot be identified and require the expertise of a veterinary parasitologist can be sent out for parasite identification, if requested.

Reporting time: Send out test-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

PARATHYROID HORMONE (INCLUDES IONIZED CALCIUM)

S521    

Specimen required: 1 ml of clear serum or heparinized plasma, separated and shipped on ice (must avoid hemolysis/lipemia). Patient should be fasted.

Indication: Measures the immunoreactive portion of PTH. It will be interpreted in conjunction with “ionized” (unbound) calcium levels, which are run concurrently and included in the price.

Comments: Normal values in cats may be below the sensitivity of the assay so the difference between low and normal cannot be distinguished.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

PARR (PCR FOR ANTIGEN RECEPTOR REARRANGEMENTS)    

SPARR    

Specimen required: EDTA whole blood (minimum 100 uL), cytology slides, body or CSF fluid (volume depends on cellularity).

Indication: To confirm the presence of clonal lymphoid proliferation/lymphoid neoplasia

Comments: The test can only be run on cats and dogs. The sensitivity is ~75% for dogs and 65% for cats. This is a DNA test and is not sensitive to the age of the sample since DNA is very stable. Stained cytology slides or any body fluid are acceptable if they are sufficiently cellular. Formalin fixed tissue cannot be used.

Reporting time: Send out-Colorado State University; results generally available within 7-10 business days.

 

PARVOVIRUS CANINE (ELISA) (SEE ALSO DIARRHEA PANEL)

682  

Specimen required: Minimum 1 g of fresh or digitally collected feces.

Indication: Detects parvovirus antigen in feces.

Comments: Virus is only shed for 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. This test is run on canines. If wishing to test on felines, please contact lab for further information.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

PARVOVIRUS (SERUM TITER) (ALSO SEE CANINE VACCINE TITER PANEL)

683    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml serum.

Indication: This is an IFA procedure to detect antibody to parvovirus. The test is titred @1:10, 1:50, 1:100 and 1:200. Can also be run up to 1:50 with CDV in the Vaccine Titer Panel (for vaccine purposes).

Comments: The test cannot distinguish between diseased and vaccinated animals. IgM, IgG or combined titers can all be measured and IgM may be helpful in detecting recent exposure in an unvaccinated animal. Can be ordered as a standalone test or part of the canine vaccine titer panel (distemper antibody titer and parvovirus titer).

Reporting time: Monday, Wednesday and Friday

 

PHENOBARBITAL

351  

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum in RT-must not be collected in an SST; lipemia does not interfere.

Indication: Measures therapeutic levels of Phenobarbital.

Comments: The drug should not be measured until it reaches steady state conditions after 20 days. Peak values occur at 4-8 hours, with trough values at 8-12 hours and both should be within the therapeutic range. A trough level is generally recommended.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

PHOSPHORUS

390  

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of non-hemolysed serum or urine.

Indication: This analyte is a component of most chemistry profiles and can also be run on urine to determine its fractional excretion.

Comments: It may be elevated with renal disease and in relation to age and diet. Phosphorus may be elevated in cats with hyperthyroidism.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

PIVKA

NO LONGER AVAILABLE

Unfortunately reagents for performing PIVKA have been indefinitely backordered. Effective since December 1, 2013, PIVKA is no longer done and instead a prothrombin time (PT) will be substituted. Prolongation of PT can be detected by 36 hours post-ingestion of rodenticide and or when Vitamin K antagonism is suspected.  

 

POTASSIUM

396    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml serum or urine-separate serum immediately in species/breeds with active erythrocyte Na:K pumps (ie. horses, Akitas).

Indication: A component of most chemistry profiles, it can also be measured on urine and is typically interpreted concurrently with other electrolytes and CO2.

Comments: As the predominant intracellular cat ion, it is critical to normal cell function but can be altered in any disease state affecting electrolytes, acid-base balance or causing anorexia. Serum levels may not accurately reflect total body potassium levels and spurious elevations occur commonly with thrombocytosis.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

POTASSIUM BROMIDE

354   

Specimen required: 1 ml serum.

Indication: Measures therapeutic levels of the drug.

Comments: Steady state conditions are achieved after 21 days. Bromide toxicosis has been documented.

Reporting time: Monday to Saturday-24 hour turnaround time. 

POTOMAC HORSE FEVER

S656    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum. If PCR required, then need EDTA whole blood as well.

Indication: Measures antibody titers to Neorickettsia risticii or looks for organism DNA (PCR).

Comments: Titers may take 2-4 weeks to develop.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

PROGESTERONE

522    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml serum NOTE: Submit serum in red top tubes only. Submission in SST tubes have shown progesterone levels to be significantly decreased as compared to serum submitted in red top tubes.

Indication: Levels indicate luteal activity and can be used in many species to indicate likelihood of pregnancy. Also used in dogs for timing of breeding or insemination.

Comments: Cats and llamas are induced ovulators so values are high after breeding. In ruminants, the test is best done at least 21 days post breeding.

Progesterone levels may also be determined after ACTH administration and this may be helpful in determining an adrenal production problem. (see ACTH response test (pre and post cortisol). Hyperadrenocorticism in cats may be associated with elevated post ACTH progesterone. A pre and post ACTH/progesterone panel can also be run.

Reporting time: Same day.

  

PROSTATIC WASH

118    

Specimen required: Submit wash fluid in EDTA; RT only if culture required.

Indication: Evaluates cytology of the prostatic urethra and prostate.

Comments: The collection technique is described in the procedures section of this manual. Cells deteriorate quickly in isotonic solutions although EDTA will help to stabilize. Direct smears and smears produced from centrifuged sediment should be made soon after sample collection and included with the submission whenever possible.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

PROTEIN C

PROC

Specimen required:  0.5 - 1 ml of citrated plasma in plastic tube or siliconized glass (same as all coagulation analysis). If submitting a coagulation profile please include EDTA whole blood (LT).

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. The RT tubes currently supplied by the lab are siliconized but please verify this before using the tube for transport of citrate plasma. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection.

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm

Indications:  To differentiate between portosystemic vascular anomalies and microvascular hepatic dysplasia.

Comments:  Protein C is a plasma anticoagulant factor synthesized in the liver and important in maintaining the haemostatic balance.  It aids in the diagnosis of thrombotic disorders and in some types of liver disease.  Dogs with liver failure or portosystemic vascular anomalies have low levels of protein C ( < 70%) while dogs with microvascular hepatic dysplasia have higher levels of protein C (> 70%).  The test can also be used to monitor the success of shunt ligation surgery and return of normal hepatic blood flow.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS

S355 (MAMMALIAN)    

S350 (AVIAN)        

Specimen required: 0.5 ml serum. Avian submissions: 0.25 ml.

Indication: Separates the protein constituents of serum using electrical current.

Comments: The protein profile can provide evidence of inflammatory disease (polyclonal) or neoplasia (monoclonal spike). Some infectious diseases (e.g. canine ehrlichiosis) are occasionally associated with monoclonal spikes. Avian submissions are sent out to Cornell. The test is set up on Wednesday.

Reporting time: Send out test Phoenix Central Lab, avian only Cornell; results generally available within 3-5 business days.

  

PROTHROMBIN TIME (PT)

816   

PROTHROMBIN TIME/APTT

841    

Specimen required: Citrated plasma from a properly filled BT tube. If submitting a coagulation profile also submit EDTA whole blood (LT) tube. See the protocol section of this manual for proper collection of coagulation tests.

Indication: Detects coagulation abnormalities associated with the extrinsic and common pathways.

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. The RT tubes currently supplied by the lab are siliconized but please verify this before using the tube for transport of citrate plasma. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection.

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm

Comments: Most sensitive to alterations in Factor VII. INR can be calculated using the PT if the animal is on anticoagulant therapy – please indicate if this calculation is required. After rodenticide exposure, values may not increase for 24-36 hours. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time can be ordered as a combination test at.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

Q

 

QUALITY CONTROL TESTING (QCT)/ENVIRONMENTAL SWAB – REFER TO BACTERIOLOGY SECTION

 

R

 

RABIES-FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY VIRUS NEUTRALIZATION (FAVN)

S665

Specimen required: 1 ml serum, spun and removed from clot.

Indication: The FAVN test is required by many rabies-free countries or regions in order for dogs and cats to qualify for a reduced quarantine period prior to entry. Appropriate paperwork must be completed before samples will be sent to the reference laboratory. Please call the lab for further details or visit http://www.vet.ksu.edu/rabies for information.

Comments: FAVN method is a qualitative virus neutralization test (fluorescent antibody virus neutralization).

Reporting time: Send out-Kansas State University; results generally available within 4-6 weeks.

 

RABIES RFFIT SEROLOGY

S658  

Specimen required: 1 ml non-hemolyzed serum.

Indication: Determines antibody titers to rabies virus but cannot distinguish between infected and vaccinated animals.

Comment: This test is used for diagnostic purposes only. For animal export, refer to Rabies FAVN. The RFFIT method is a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test.

Reporting time: Send out-Kansas State University; results generally available within 2-3 weeks.

 

RELAXIN

529    

Specimen required: 1 ml citrated or heparinized blood (blue top or green top).

Protocol: Fill the blue top or green top tube. After filling, gently invert the tube several times. Spin immediately and separate plasma to a plastic tube or plain red top tube. Freeze the sample and ship on ice.

Indication: Determines pregnancy in the canine/feline.

Comments: This hormone is related to implantation, which occurs 25-32 days post breeding so the correct breeding date is critical to avoid equivocal or inaccurate results.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE PANEL (GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR PANEL)

S516    

Specimen required: 2-4 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures progesterone, testosterone and inhibin for diagnosis of granulosa cell tumors in mares but can also be used for diagnosis of other reproductive organ tumors, ie. Sertoli cell tumors.

Comments: Most useful for granulosa cell tumors and less so for other types of gonadal tumors.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis results may take up to 4 weeks.

 

RESPIRATORY TRACT PANEL

CRP-CANINE

FRP-FELINE    

ERP-EQUINE

Specimen required:

Canine: Nasal or pharyngeal swab in viral transport media or 0.5 sterile saline in RT tube. Cotton, plastic, wood handled, Dacron and other synthetic swab are all acceptable.

Equine: Nasal swab or deep pharyngeal swab (in sterile, sealed vials with several drops of saline added), or trans-tracheal wash or bronchoalveolar lavage or lung tissue (in sterile leak-proof containers).

Feline: Two viral swabs, one nasal and one conjunctival/2 nasal swabs (1viral, 1 bacterial) and 1 viral conjunctival swab.

Indication:

Canine: Canine distemper PCR, canine adenovirus PCR, canine parainfluenza PCR, Bordetella PCR, canine pneumovirus PCR, canine respiratory coronavirus PCR, Mycoplasma cynos PCR, Influenza virus matrix PCR.

Feline: Chlamydophilia felis PCR, Feline calicivirus PCR, Feline Herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) PCR, aerobic culture & sensitivity, Mycoplasma culture.

Equine: Equine Herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) (Rhinopneumonitis) PCR, Equine Influenza virus matrix PCR, Streptococcus equi PCR, Equine Rhinitis virus A, Equine Rhinitis virus B, Equine Herpes virus 4 PCR, Equine Arteritis virus PCR, Equine Adenovirus 1 PCR, Equine Adenovirus 2 PCR..

Comments: Comprehensive testing for respiratory tract pathogens using PCR methodology.

Reporting time: Canine and equine - Cornell University. Feline - Michigan State University. Allow for 5-10 business days turnaround time.

 

RETICULOCYTE COUNT

824    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml EDTA whole blood.

Indication: Determines the approximate numbers of young erythrocytes in circulation as an estimate of proliferation in the erythroid cell line.

Comments: Performed as part of a CBC at no charge when indicated, in all species except horses and donkeys. Equidae do not have circulating reticulocytes. If the PCV is below 0.26 in cats or 2% below the reference interval for all other species a reticulocyte count is done. Reticulocyte counts may also be done at the discretion of the technologist or pathologist. The pathologist will provide the interpretation based on information available for that species and the clinical history.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

RHEUMATOID FACTOR

913    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum. The test can only be done in dogs. Steroid therapy interferes with testing.

Indication: Detects the presence of rheumatoid factor. The test is species specific.

Comments: Steroid therapy should be discontinued 4-6 weeks prior to testing.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER (ALSO SEE BLOOD PARASITE PANEL)

659    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Determines antibody titers to R. rickettsii

Comments: Titers may take 2-4 weeks to develop. Can be run as part of the Blood Parasite Panel with Lyme’s, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia and Ehrlichia.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Thursday.

 

RODENTICIDE SCREEN

S420    

Specimen required: 50 grams stomach contents or liver, or 10-20 ml EDTA or heparinized whole blood, or 50 ml of urine, or frozen liver or kidney.

Indication: Determines if warfarin or diphacinone compounds are present.

Comments: Treatment typically is initiated due to the delay in obtaining results.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business day.

 

S

 

SALMONELLA CULTURE – REFER TO BACTERIOLOGY SECTION

 

SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA (EQUINE PROTOZOAL MYELOENCEPHALITIS)

S692    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum or CSF (CSF is preferred). Avoid hemolysis.

Indication: Test for antibody to Sarcocystis neurona. A positive CSF titer is more diagnostic of infection whereas a positive serum titer may only indicate exposure.

Comment: Western blot is the method used.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

SELENIUM

S385  

Specimen required: 2 ml serum preferred but can send 2 ml EDTA or heparinized whole blood 10 grams of liver or kidney or 50 grams of feed.

Indication: Determines selenium levels.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

SEMEN EVALUATION

115    

Specimen required: Semen-entire ejaculate (preferred), or, record the ejaculate volume and color.

Indication: Measures motility, numbers and cytologic characteristics of individual sperm.

Comments: Motility subsides rapidly in transported samples.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

SERUM IRON

358  

Specimen required: 0.2 ml non hemolyzed serum.

Indication: Determines iron levels.

Comments: Values increase with NSAID and corticosteroid therapy and decrease with inflammation/sepsis. Included as part of the equine profile to help detect inflammation in horses.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

SODIUM

395  

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum or urine.

Indication: Determines levels of sodium, the predominant extracellular cat ion.

Comments: A component of most chemistry profiles, it can also be run on urine and is typically interpreted in conjunction with other electrolytes and CO2.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

SODIUM/POTASSIUM RATIO

397    

This calculation is included at no charge on all chemistry profiles and profiles that include electrolytes. A decline in the value is seen in many conditions. Hypoadrenocorticism is usually associated with values below 15.

 

SOMATOMEDIN C-REFER TO INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR

 

SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH)

361    

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum.

Indication: Determines levels of SDH, a marker of hepatocyte injury with a short serum half-life.

Comments: This is the preferred test of choice for hepatocyte injury in guinea pigs and horses.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

STONE ANALYSIS (QUALITATIVE)

NO LONGER AVAILABLE

There is currently no commercial kit available for this testing.  In the future we may be able to manufacture our own reagents but are unable to do this at the present time.  Please see the "Quantitative Stone Analysis" in the manual. 

 

STONE ANALYSIS (QUANTITATIVE)

S373  

Specimen required: Calculi-can be run on very small amounts but 1 gram of stones preferred.

Indication: Determines the mineral content of calculi using X-ray diffraction.

Comments: This is the most reliable test for assessing uroliths and can be used for tiny specimens.

Reporting time: Send out-Louis B Herring; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

STRYCHNINE

S422  

Specimen required: 20 grams stomach contents, liver or kidney; 10 ml urine. Contact True North send out department prior to submission.

Indication: Determines if strychnine is present.

Reporting time: Send out-Abbotsford Health Center; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

T

 

TAURINE

S387  

Specimen required: Canine: 0.5 ml heparinized plasma-blood must be spun, the plasma separated, frozen immediately and shipped on ice. Feline: 1 ml heparinized whole blood.

Indication: Measures taurine levels in plasma or whole blood to determine if deficiency exists.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

TEST CANCELLED

015  

Sometimes samples are submitted to the laboratory and then cancelled. Whenever possible the test will be cancelled without additional charges. If the sample has already been accessioned in the laboratory there is a sample cancellation fee, which covers handling and pickup of the specimen. If the test has already been started or processing cannot be stopped, the test(s) cannot be cancelled. Samples submitted for histology and microbiology, once trimmed in or plated, cannot be cancelled.

 

TESTOSTERONE

S536  

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures testosterone levels in any species, typically to verify complete castration. Males with functional testicular tissue will have a marked increase in testosterone levels. If running a HCG response, send a baseline sample, 30 and 60 minute post injection samples.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University if testosterone only requested, UC Davis if HCG requested; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

T4 (TETRAIODOTHYRONINE)

525  

Specimen required: 0.25 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures serum levels of T4, the predominant form of thyroid hormone in domestic species.

Comments: Also used to assess success of therapy (supplementation or suppression) during treatment of various thyroid diseases. Samples for peak levels should be drawn 4-6 hours post-pill.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

T4 PRE/POST PILL

526      

Specimen required: 0.25 ml serum taken prior to administration of Thyroxine and 0.25 ml serum taken 4-6 hours after administration of Thyroxine.

Indication: Measures the nadir and peak levels of T4 associated with supplementation.

Comments: Absorption and metabolism of thyroid hormone supplementation is unique to each individual. Although general guidelines can be followed, treatment must be titrated for each patient.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

THYROID DIAGNOSTIC PANEL

S507  

Specimen required: 2 ml of serum. Please note: Gross hemolysis or lipemia will greatly affect results.

Indication: Represents a comprehensive evaluation of thyroid status in dogs. The panel includes TT4, TT3, FT4, FT3, TSH, TgAA, T3AA, T4AA.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

THYROID REGISTRY PANEL

S508  

Specimen required: 2 ml of serum.

Indication: A complete pedigree, an OFA application for thyroid database and a $15.00 US cheque, made payable to the OFA, must be submitted with the sample. Samples will be held at the lab until all paperwork is completed and the OFA cheque is received.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

  

TOTAL PROTEIN

391  

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures serum proteins as an indicator of organ function and hydration. A component of most chemistry profiles and also run concurrently with many CBC’s.

Comments: Hemolysed and/or lipemic samples may falsely elevate the results which can also affect the globulin calculation and A:G ratio.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

TOXOPLASMA IgG (CANINE OR FELINE)

664

 

TOXOPLASMA IgM (CANINE OR FELINE)

S625

S626

Specimen required: 0.2 ml of serum. Canine toxoplasmosis IgM 0.75 ml.

Indication: This is an IFA procedure to detect antibody to Toxoplasma gondii.

Comments: Species specific antibodies are required. IgG, IgM or combined titers can be determined. IgM reflects acute antibody production whereas IgG reflects previous exposure.

Reporting time: Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Canine and Feline toxoplasmosis IgM are sent out to Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

** Please not we no longer perform Feline Toxo Igm in house due to discontinuation of commercial contro l**

 

TOXOPLASMA (LARGE ANIMALS)

S666    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

Comments: The test is species specific so must be sent to a lab that has antibodies for the particular species being tested.

Reporting time: Send out-UC Davis; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

TRACE MINERAL PANEL

S388      

Specimen required: 3 ml of serum or fresh tissue.

Indication: Measure selenium, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc in serum samples. In tissue samples, selenium, copper, manganese, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, lead and cadmium are measured.

Comments: Serum levels may not accurately reflect total body levels and levels can vary depending on the tissue submitted.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

TRANSTRACHEAL WASH – REFER TO CYTOLOGY AND PROTOCOL SECTIONS

 

TRICHROME STAIN (FECES)

641 

Specimen required: Feces-preferably in polyvinyl alcohol as preservative so a 24 hour collection can be submitted.

Indication: Identifies parasitic ova and cysts.

Comments: Some parasites, particularly protozoa are more readily identified using this technique, especially when only small amounts of feces are produced (small birds, reptiles and mammals). See also Cryptosporidia and Giardia IFA, page45.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

TRIGLYCERIDE

363  

Specimen required: 0.25 ml serum-fasted or 0.25 ml abdominal/chest fluid.

Indication: Measure triglycerides in serum or body fluids to identify lipid abnormalities or chylous effusions.

Comments: A minimum 12 hour fast is recommended in dogs and cats. Fasting is not required for horses. Values may be markedly increased post-prandially.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

T3 (TRIIODOTHYRONINE)

S523    

Specimen required: 1 ml serum for T3 level. Indication: Measures T3, the active form of the thyroid hormone.

Comments: Required to assess therapeutic levels for animals on Cytobin or iopanoic acid therapy.

Reporting time: Send out-Phoenix Central Laboratory; results generally available within 3-5 business days.

 

T3/T4 AUTOANTIBODY TEST

S527  

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum.

Indication: Detects antibodies to T3 and T4 in canine serum.

Comments: These antibodies can interfere with measurement of T3 and T4 levels when measured by RIA techniques.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

TRYPSIN-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY (TLI)-(CANINE)

364    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml serum-fasted.

Indication: This test assesses exocrine pancreatic function in dogs and is considered the best test for diagnosis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in this species.

Comments: Cases of EPI typically have values below the sensitivity of the test. Elevations can occur with pancreatic injury.

Reporting time: Tuesday and Saturday.

 

TRYPSIN-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY (TLI)-(FELINE)

S392

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum-fasted. Sample cannot be lipemic.

Indication: This test assesses exocrine pancreatic function in cats and is most useful in determining exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

Comment: It is of limited use in detecting pancreatitis or other types of pancreatic disease. Can be run as part of a panel consisting of Vitamin B12/folate at a price of $144.80

Reporting time: Send out-Texas GI Lab; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

  

TSH

528  

 

TSH/T4

535  

Specimen required: 0.4 ml of serum.

Indication: Measures TSH as an indicator of thyroid function in dogs and cats.

Comments: This test should always be interpreted in conjunction with total or free T4 levels. It can also be measured to assess whether thyroid supplementation is adequate or as part of an expanded TRH response test to assess the thyroid pituitary axis. Values will be elevated after radioactive iodine therapy in cats and can be followed to assess return of thyroid function or the need for supplementation. Measurable TSH levels in cats rule out hyperthyroidism.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

U

 

UREAPLASMA CULTURE – REFER TO BACTERIOLOGY SECTION

 

URIC ACID

365 

Specimen required: 0.2 ml serum or heparinized plasma or 0.2 ml urine.

Indication: Measures renal function and nitrogen metabolism in birds and reptiles. Included in profiles designed to assess these classes of vertebrates.

Comments: Reference intervals are not available for all species. Can also be measured on urine, typically concurrently with urine creatinine, especially in Dalmatians which are a breed predisposed to forming urate uroliths. Due to the poor solubility of uric acid, urine levels may reflect saturation points rather than actual excretion.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINALYSIS

366    

Specimen required: minimum of 5 ml urine preferred. Please indicate method of collection.

Indication: Assesses the biochemical parameters and microscopic features of urine.

Comments: Results can change with transportation and refrigeration particularly the presence of absence of crystals. Bacterial contamination and overgrowth are common in mishandled samples. Small samples may result in suboptimal results. Samples may be submitted up to 72 hours after initial receipt of selected profiles to qualify for add on pricing.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINE CORTISOL

376  

Specimen required: 5 ml of urine.

Indication: Measures cortisol levels in urine to be used for calculating the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio.

Comments: More useful in dogs than in cats. Equivocal results are common.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINE CORTISOL/CREATININE RATIO

360    

Specimen required: 5 ml of urine.

Indication: Measures the ratio of urine cortisol to creatinine as a predictor of hyperadrenocorticism.

Comments: The test has a high negative predictive value but a poor positive predictive value. Equivocal test results are common due to increased production of adrenocortical hormones in many disease states (“stress”).

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINE CREATININE

368      

Specimen required: 5 ml of urine-cystocentesis preferred.

Indication: Measures creatinine excretion by the kidney as an approximation of glomerular filtration.

Comments: Typically measured concurrently with other urine and or serum parameters to determine ratios that may be helpful in predicting or assessing disease.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINE PROTEIN

370    

Specimen required: 5 ml of urine-cystocentesis preferred.

Indication: Accurately measures most protein in urine (albumin predominates). Does not measure Bence-Jones proteins.

Comments: This is a quantitative microprotein measurement performed on the biochemistry analyzer.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINE PROTEIN/CREATININE RATIO

371

Specimen required: 5 ml of urine-cystocentesis preferred.

Indication: Determines the significance of protein levels measured in urine.

Comments: Results are only valid when the urine sediment is inactive. Lower urinary hemorrhage or inflammation will cause the ratio to be increased. Mild elevations occur in many disease states but are typically transient and reflect temporary alterations in glomerular permeability. Higher or persistent elevations typically reflect primary glomerular disease.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

URINE/SERUM ELECTROLYTE RATIOS-REFER TO FRACTIONAL EXCRETION, URINE/SERUM

 

URINE URIC ACID/CREATININE RATIO

369

Specimen required: 5 ml of urine.

Indication: Determines if uric acid excretion is excessive, especially in dogs forming urate uroliths.

Comments: There is overlap between dogs that form urate uroliths and those that do not so the test may not be helpful. This may in part reflect poor solubility of uric acid and precipitation when saturation is reached.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

UTERINE CULTURE-REFER TO BACTERIOLOGY SECTION

 

V

 

VACCINE TITER PANEL

 

CANINE

665 (PARVO AND DISTEMPER)    

FELINE

666 (CALICI, PANLEUKOPENIA, HERPES)

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum.

Indication: Determines if an animal has antibody to specific viruses to help predict the need for vaccination.

Comment: Acquired immunity involves both cell-mediated as well as humoral immune responses. The complex interaction and individual variation makes prediction of protection problematic. In diseases where serum-neutralizing antibodies are known to be important there may be a linear relationship between antibody levels and protection. In our laboratory, titers equal to or greater than 1:50 are usually considered protective.

Reporting time: Canine – Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Feline – Tuesday and Thursday.

 

VIRAL ISOLATION

S222    

Specimen required: Varies with virus – please contact the laboratory regarding suitable specimens.

Indication: To provide definitive evidence of replicating virus in a lesion.

Comments: Viral isolation can be done on a variety of specimens with specimen collection depending on the target tissue of suspected infection. Examples include oropharyngeal swab, vaginal swab, TTW fluid, conjunctival swab or scraping etc. Specific transport media is required and cotton top swabs are to be avoided. Note that viral isolation is less commonly done and has been replaced by other detection methods such as PCR and ELISA. Documentation of viable, replicating virus in a lesion may be required for definitive diagnosis since PCR and serology are indirect indicators of infection (i.e., indicate exposure). Due to fastidiousness of many organisms as well as low numbers in chronic infections, false negative results are common. Some organisms cannot be cultured.

Reporting time: Send out test-Washington State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

VITAMIN A, VITAMIN E OR BETACAROTENE

S390

 

S999 (PANEL)

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum each.

Indication: Determines levels, usually to assess if dietary intake is adequate.

Comments: Can be ordered as a combination panel including Vitamin A, E and Betacarotene.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

VITAMIN B12/FOLATE

356    

 

VITAMIN B12/FOLATE/TRYPSIN (FELINE TRYPSIN ONLY)

B/F/T    

Specimen required: 1 ml of serum-fasted and must discontinue antibiotic therapy one week prior to the test.

Indication: Vitamin B12 levels are helpful along with folate and TLI to distinguish small intestinal disease from pancreatic insufficiency and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

Comments: The test is insensitive but specific. If run in conjunction with a feline TLI price is $144.80.

Reporting time: Send out test-Texas GI lab; results generally available within 5-10 days.

 

VITAMIN D ASSAY

S389      

Specimen required: 0.5 ml of serum-avoid lipemia.

Indication: Determines exposure to vitamin D or its’ analogues. Can also be used to monitor therapy.

Comments: The delay in obtaining results can be problematic in cases where acute toxicosis is suspected.

Reporting time: Send out-Michigan State University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

VON WILLEBRAND ASSAY

S817    

Sample required: 0.5 ml non-hemolyzed BT plasma sent on ice.

Indication: Determines levels of this factor to assess if deficiency is present. Does not determine the risk of hemorrhage.

Protocol: It is imperative that proper collection procedures are followed for coagulation test results to be accurate. Contamination with tissue thromboplastin, prolonged collection, improper mixing and improper anticoagulant: blood ratios will all adversely affect coagulation tests. If necessary, sedation or anesthesia may be required in difficult patients. Avoid the jugular if serious coagulopathy is suspected. Clean venipuncture of large caliber blood vessels is optimal. If initial venipuncture is less than optimal, the first 1-2 ml of blood that may be contaminated with tissue thromboplastin can be discarded or placed in EDTA for a CBC before a clean syringe is used to collect the coagulation sample. The sodium citrate tube (BT) must be properly filled with blood; our tubes require 2.7 ml whole blood. The vacuum in the tube is designed to draw the correct amount of blood into the tube to achieve the optimal ratio with the anticoagulant. The tube is spun immediately. The plasma is removed and placed into another blue top tube which has had the sodium citrate removed by shaking it out of the tube. If not available, a plastic tube can be used. Do not use glass (RT) tube-only siliconized glass or plastic can be used to transport citrated plasma for coagulation tests. The RT tubes currently supplied by the lab are siliconized but please verify this before using the tube for transport of citrate plasma. Citrated plasma is required for running tests of coagulation such as PT, PTT, D-Dimer , Von Willebrand factor and other factor analyses. The separated plasma should be transported to the lab on ice. Freeze the samples if they will not reach the lab within 6 hours of collection.

Note: An instructional video is available at https://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/Sects/Coag/samplinginstructionsinstructions.cfm

Comments: Improper collection (clotting/hemolysis) may affect results. Adult levels are not achieved until after 4 months of age. Values after transfusion or during heat cycles may be inaccurate.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

W

 

WARFARIN – REFER TO RODENTICIDE SCREEN

 

WEST NILE VIRUS IGG CAPTURE ELISA

S668    

Specimen required: 2ml of serum, CSF (minimum sample 200ul) in red top serum tube

Indication: For the quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to West Nile virus in horses. Combined with IgM-specific capture ELISA, antibodies induced by acute viral infection and/or vaccination can be distinguished.

Comment: For horses with neurologic signs both IgG and IgM capture ELISA testing is recommended. For testing vaccine titers, the IgG test should be performed. Can be run in combination with the West Nile Virus IgM Capture Virus at a cost of $83.50.

Reporting time: Send out to Cornell University, allow for 5-7 business days.

WEST NILE VIRUS IGM CAPTURE ELISA

S668 

Specimen required: 2ml of serum (minimum vol 200ul) in red top serum tube

Indication: For the quantitative detection of IgM antibodies to West Nile virus in horses and dogs induced by acute viral infection.

Comment: For horses with neurologic signs both IgG and IgM capture ELISA testing is recommended. For testing vaccine titers, the IgG test should be performed. Can be run in combination with the West Nile Virus IgM Capture Virus at a cost of $83.50.

Reporting time: Send out to Cornell University, allow for 5-7 business days.

 

WEST NILE VIRUS (IGM TITER)

S667    

Specimen required: 2 ml serum, plasma or CSF.

Indication: Determines if the animal has been recently infected with West Nile Virus.

Comments: Horses or dogs with acute onset of neurologic signs.

Reporting time: Send out-Cornell University; results generally available within 5-10 business days.

 

WHITE CELL COUNT (WBC)

825    

Specimen required: 0.5 ml EDTA whole blood or fluid sample.

Indication: To determine the numbers of WBC’s in blood or fluid.

Comment: Some fluids are unsuitable to obtain accurate WBC counts, either due to viscosity or due to debris.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

WHITE CELL COUNT/DIFFERENTIAL (WBC/DIFF)

821    

Specimen required: Blood smear +/- microhematocrit tube.

Indication: In some patients only a small volume of blood can be collected, insufficient for a complete CBC or the EDTA sample may be damaged in transit. Included as part of the avian/reptile profile and small mammal profile when there is insufficient sample.

Comments: Leukocyte numbers can be estimated and a differential performed on a good quality blood smear with a good degree of accuracy. This is standard for non-mammalian vertebrates that have nucleated erythrocytes. If submitted concurrently, a PCV is included at no additional cost.

Reporting time: Same day.

 

Y

 

YERSINIA CULTURE – REFER TO BACTERIOLOGY SECTION

Z

 

ZINC

S391     

Specimen required: 1-2 ml serum or 1-2 ml of heparinized plasma. Hemolysis interferes with testing. Large animals require 2 ml of serum, small animals require 1 ml of serum, avians require 100 ul serum and fish require 200 ul serum.

Indication: Determines toxicosis.

Reporting time: Send out-Washington State University; avian submissions go to Cornell; results generally available within 5-10 business days.